Spinal Cord Stimulation, MILD Procedure, and Regenerative Medicine, Novel Interventional Nonopioid Therapies in Chronic Pain

  • Ken P. EhrhardtJr
  • Susan M. Mothersele
  • Andrew J. Brunk
  • Jeremy B. Green
  • Mark R. Jones
  • Craig B. Billeaud
  • Alan David Kaye
Other Pain (A Kaye and N Vadivelu, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Other Pain


Purpose of Review

Chronic pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting millions of individuals.

Recent Findings

In recent years, newer treatments have emerged that are changing the way clinicians treat pain pathogenesis, including novel nonopioid strategies. In this regard, spinal cord stimulation, the MILD procedure, and regenerative medicine have shown promise. This review summarizes recent literature on these three emerging treatment strategies.


The results of this review suggest that under certain conditions, spinal cord stimulation, the MILD procedure, and regenerative medicine can be effective treatment modalities.


Spinal cord stimulation MILD procedure Regenerative medicine Pain Ligamentum flavum hypertrophy Lumbar stenosis 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ken P. Ehrhardt Jr., Susan M. Mothersele, Andrew J. Brunk, Jeremy B. Green, Mark R. Jones, Craig B. Billeaud, and Alan David Kaye declare no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ken P. EhrhardtJr
    • 1
  • Susan M. Mothersele
    • 1
  • Andrew J. Brunk
    • 1
  • Jeremy B. Green
    • 1
  • Mark R. Jones
    • 2
  • Craig B. Billeaud
    • 1
  • Alan David Kaye
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, LSU Health Science CenterLouisiana State University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain MedicineHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyLSU School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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