Review of Recent Advances in Peripheral Nerve Stimulation (PNS)
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Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) for the treatment of chronic pain has become an increasingly important field in the arena of neuromodulation, given the ongoing advances in electrical neuromodulation technology since 1999 permitting minimally invasive approaches using an percutaneous approach as opposed to implantable systems. Our review aims to provide clinicians with the recent advances and studies in the field, with specific emphasis on clinical data and indications that have been accumulated over the last several years. In addition, we aim to address key basic science studies to further emphasize the importance of translational research outcomes driving clinical management.
KeywordsPeripheral nerve stimulation Chronic pain Peripheral neuromodulation Clinical indications Pain Neuropathic pain
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Krishnan Chakravarthy and Andrew Nava declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Paul J. Christo and Kayode Williams declare grant support from Medtronic, Inc.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest published recently have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
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