Treatment of headache, specifically migraine attacks, has always been a challenging subject, especially for neurologist and pain specialists. Triptans are generally underutilized, despite being the gold standard abortive medication for migraine attacks. On the other hand, opioid analgesics are overused as a treatment for headache. One reason for this could be physician unfamiliarity with drug interactions between opioids and other medications, especially the possibility of serotonin toxicity. The general awareness of potential serotonin toxicity with using opioid analgesics is low. In this review, we will conduct a theoretic and evidence-based review of the potential for developing serotonin syndrome in patients who are using opioids analgesics, especially in combination with antidepressants, a common co-prescribed combination. We also review the current diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome and identify possible shortcomings of those criteria. Our aim is to increase the awareness of health care providers about potential drug interaction of opioid analgesics with other classes of medication. We place particular emphasis on tramadol since this drug is one of the most commonly used opioid analgesics for headache. The potential for developing serotonin syndrome is relatively high in the patients who are using opioid for pain control. The use of opioids in migraine headache is already discouraged due to the high risk of medication overuse headache and also an increase in headache-related disability (Katsarava et al. Neurology 62:788–790, 2004; Bigal and Lipton. Neurology 71:1821-8, 2008; Casucci and Cevoli. Neurol Sci. 34 Suppl 1:S125–8, 2013). This is another reason that physicians and health care providers should avoid using this class of medication for pain, specifically headache and migraine treatment.
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*Some drugs are available in different structures, much like left and right hands. These structures that mirror each other are called enantiomers and have different binding to receptors, different desired effects, etc. There are four possible combinations for each molecule (SS, RR, RS, SR).
Conflict of Interest
Hossein Ansari declares that he is on the Speaker’s Bureau for Teva Pharmaceutical and Avanir Pharmaceutical.
Leila Kouti declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Migraine and Beyond
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Ansari, H., Kouti, L. Drug Interaction and Serotonin Toxicity with Opioid Use: Another Reason to Avoid Opioids in Headache and Migraine Treatment. Curr Pain Headache Rep 20, 50 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-016-0579-3
- Drug interaction
- Serotonin syndrome