Symptoms of Concussion and Comorbid Disorders
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Symptoms of concussion are divided into three major domains: physical, cognitive, and emotional. These symptoms including headache, neck pain, vision changes, cognitive deficits, and emotional changes can be seen immediately after the injury and usually resolve within the first 3 months. However, some of these symptoms may persist for several months afterward. Risk factors have been identified for prolonged symptoms. Certain early interventions may decrease persistent symptoms. In this chapter, we discuss common acute and persistent symptoms after concussion and provide an overview of assessment tools and management options.
KeywordsConcussion Head injury Neck pain Headache Comorbid disorders
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Conflict of Interest
Cherry Junn and Christian Shenouda each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
Kathleen R. Bell reports consultant fees from the University of Washington.
Jeanne M. Hoffman reports grants from NIDILRR.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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