• Abokrysha NT. Vitamin D deficiency in women with fibromyalgia in Saudi Arabia. Pain Medicine. 2012;13:452–8. This report consists of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with fibromyalgia in a neurology clinic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Mease P. Fibromyalgia syndrome: review of clinical presentation, pathogenesis, outcome measures, and treatment. J Rheumatol. 2005;75(Suppl):6–21.
• Matthana MH. The relation between vitamin d deficiency and fibromyalgia syndrome in women. Saudi Med J. 2011;32:925–9. This article defines the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and fibromyalgia syndrome and evaluates the effect of replacement with vitamin D.
Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, et al. The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:19–28.
Arnson Y, Amital D, Amital H. The diverse world of vitamin D: does it also modulate pain sensation? IMAJ. 2009;11:371–2.
Plotnikoff GA, Quigley JM. Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:1463–70.
Mascarenhas R, Mobarhan S. Hypovitaminosis D-induced pain. Nutr Rev. 2004;62:354–9.
Gloth III F, Lindsay JM, Zelesnick LB, et al. Can vitamin D deficiency produce an unusual pain syndrome? Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1662–4.
Prabhala A, Garg R, Dandona P. Severe myopathy associated with vitamin D deficiency in Western New York. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1199–203.
Benson J, Wilson A, Stocks N, et al. Muscle pain as an indicator of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Australian Aboriginal population. Med J Aust. 2006;185:76–7.
Lofti A, Abdel-Nasser AM, Hamdy A, et al. Hypovitaminosis D in female patients with chronic low back pain. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:1895–901.
Atherton K, Berry DJ, Parsons T, et al. Vitamin D and chronic widespread pain in a white middle-aged British population: evidence from a cross-sectional population survey. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68:817–22.
Badsha H, Daher M, Kong KO. Myalgias or nonspecific muscle pain in Arab or Indo-Pakistani patients may indicate vitamin D deficiency. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:971–3.
Schwalfenberg G. Improvement of chronic back pain or failed back surgery with vitamin D repletion: a case series. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009;22:69–74.
Saud AF, Khalaf AM. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine. 2003;28:177–9.
Shinchuk L, Holick MF. Vitamin D and rehabilitation: improving functional outcomes. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007;22:297–304.
Armstrong DJ, Meenagh GK, Bickle I, et al. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anxiety and depression in fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:551–4.
Mouyis M, Ostor AJK, Crisp AJ, et al. Hypovitaminosis D among rheumatology outpatients in clinical practice. Rheumatology. 2008;47:1348–51.
•• McBeth J, Pye SR, O'Neill TW, et al. Musculoskeletal pain is associated with very low levels of vitamin D in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69:1448–52. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that musculoskeletal pain is associated with low vitamin D levels but the relationship is explained by physical inactivity and/or other putative confounding factors.
•• Heidari B, Shirvani JS, Firouzjahi A, et al. Association between nonspecific skeletal pain and vitamin D deficiency. Int J Rheum Dis. 2010;13:340–6. The results of this study indicate a positive association of vitamin D deficiency with a variety of nonspecific bone pain, particularly in women.
• Olama SM, Senna MK, Elarman MM, et al. Serum vitamin D level and bone mineral density in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:185–92.
Holick MF. Vitamin D, deficiency: what a pain it is. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003;78:1457–9.
Glerup H, Mikkelsen K, Poulsen L, et al. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med. 2000;247:260–8.
Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:343–51.
Al-Allaf AW, Mole PA, Paterson CR, et al. Bone heath in patients with fibromyalgia. Rheumatology. 2003;42:1202–6.
Block SR. Vitamin D, deficiency is not associated with nonspecific musculoskeletal pain syndromes including fibromyalgia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1585–91.
Tandeter H, Grynbaum M, Zuili I, et al. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels in patients with fibromyalgia. IMAJ. 2009;11:339–42.
Huisman AM, White KP, Algra A. Vitamin D levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2001;28:2535–9.
•• Daniel D, Pirotta MV. Fibromyalgia—should we be testing and treating for vitamin D deficiency? Aust Fam Physicia. 2011;40:712–6. This review aims to synthesize the evidence whether general practitioners should be testing and treating these patients for vitamin D deficiency in fibromyalgia.
Warner AE, Arnspiger AS. Diffuse musculoskeletal pain is not associated with low vitamin D levels or improved by treatment with vitamin D. J Clin Rheumatol. 2008;14:12–6.
•• De Rezende Pena C, Grillo LP, Das Chagas Medeiros MM. Evaluation of 25-hydroxivitamin D serum levels in patients with fibromyalgia. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:365–9. This study showed that light to moderate deficient and insufficient 25(OH)D levels are not found more commonly in patients with FM.
Holick MF. Vitamin D, deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:266–81.
•• Lewis JM, Coley JLB, Frontrier TH. Fibromyalgia syndrome and vitamin D. J Musculoskeletal Pain. 2011;19:164–6. This article is an updated review on the association of fibromyalgia with hypovitaminosis D.
Martinez-Lavin M. Is fibromyalgia a generalized reflex sympathetic dystrophy? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001;19:1–3.
Russell IJ. Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Bonica’s Management of Pain. Ed. Loeser J. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2001;pp.543–56.
Bayliss DA, Millhorn DE. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action: application to the respiratory system. J Appl Physiol. 1992;73:393–404.
Schimitt CP, Obry J, Feneberg R, et al. Beta-1 adrenergic blockade augments pulsatile PTH secretion in humans. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:3245–50.
Mostellar ME, Tuttle EP. Effects of alkalosis on plasma concentration and urinary excretion of inorganic phosphate in man. J Clin Invest. 1964;43:138–49.
Valença MM, Medeiros FL, Martins HA, et al. Neuroendocrine dysfunction in fibromyalgia and migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2009;13:308–13.
Macedo JA, Hesse J, Turner JD, et al. Glucocorticoid sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients decreased expression of corticosteroid receptors and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:799–809.
Kuchinaid A, Schweinhardt P, Seminowicz DA, et al. Accelerated brain gray matter loss in fibromyalgia patients: premature aging of the brain? J Neurosci. 2007;27:4004–7.
Papageorgiou AC, Silman AJ, Macfarlane GJ. Chronic widespread pain in the population: a seven year follow-up study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:1071–4.
Nielsen G, Henriksson KG. Pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic musculoskeletal pain (fibromyalgia): the role of central and peripheral sensitization and pain disinhibition. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007;21:465–80.
Eyles DW, Smith S, Kinobe R, et al. Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1-alfa-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat. 2005;29:21–30.
Garcion E, Wion-Barbot N, Montero-Menei CN, Berger F, et al. New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metabol. 2002;13:100–5.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Thomas Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > 60 years. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:752–8.
Boland R. Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function. Endocr Rev. 1986;7:434–47.
Sorensen OH, Lund B, Saltin B, et al. Myopathy in bone loss of ageing: improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium. Clin Sci (Colch). 1979;56:157–61.
Simpson RU, Thomas GA, Arnold AJ. Identification of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and activities in muscle. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:8882–91.
Bischoff HA, Borchers M, Gudat F, et al. In situ detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue. Histochem J. 2001;33:19–24.
• Nimitphong H, Holick MF. Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence. Curr Op Clin Nutr Metabol Care. 2011;14:7–14. Low vitamin D status has been linked to poor performance in neurocognitive testing in elderly, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and a lower motor neuron-induced muscle atrophy.
Ceglia L. Vitamin D, and skeletal muscle tissue and function. Mol Aspects Med. 2008;29:407–14.
Dawson-Hughes B. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and functional outcomes in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88:537S–40S.
Zehnder D, Bland R, Williams MC, et al. Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitam in d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:888–94.
Diesel B, Radermacher J, Bureik M, et al. Vitamin D(3) metabolism in humanglioblastoma multiforme: functionality of CYP27B1 splice variants, metabolism of calcidiol, and effect of calcitriol. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5370–80.
McCann JC, Ames BN. Is there convincing biological or behavioral evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to brain dysfunction? FASEB J. 2008;22:982–1001.
Tommaso M, Sardaro M, Serpino C. Fibromyalgia comorbidity in primary headaches. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:453–64.
Peres MF, Young WB, Kaup AO, et al. Fibromyalgia is common in patients with transformed migraine. Neurology. 2001;57:1326–8.
Peres MF. Fibromyalgia, fatigue, and headache disorders. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2003;3:97–103.
Centonze V, Bassi A, Cassiano MA, et al. Migraine, daily chronic headache and fibromyalgia in the same patient: an evolutive ‘continuum’ of non organic chronic pain? About 100 clinical cases. Neurol Sci. 2004;25:S291–2.
Jesus CAS, Peres MFP. Low Vitamin D levels in migraine [Abstract]. International Headache Congress. Boston, USA. June 27–30, 2013.