Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society: Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias, and facial pain. Cephalagia 1988, 8(suppl 7):1–96.
Graham J: Cluster headache: the relation to arousal, relaxation, and autonomic tone. Headache 1990, 30:145–151.
Bono G, Micieli G, Manzoni GC, et al.: Chronobiological basis for the management of periodic headache. In Migraine, Clinical Research, and Advances. Edited by Clifford Rose F. Basel: Karger; 1985:206–217.
Dexter JD, Weitzman E: The relationship of nocturnal headaches to sleep stage patterns. Neurology 1970, 20:513.
Russell D: Cluster headache: severity and temporal profiles of attacks and patient activity prior to and during attacks. Cephalalgia 1981, 1:209–216.
Kudrow L: Cluster headache: new concepts. Neurol Clin 1983, 1:369–383.
Dalessio DJ: Wolff’s Headache and Other Head Pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 1987.
Connors MJ: Cluster headache: a review. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1995, 95(9):533–9.
Raimondi E: Premonitory symptoms in cluster headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001, 5:55–59.
Martelletti P, Giacovazzo M: Putative neuroimmunological mechanisms in cluster headache: an integrated hypothesis. Headache 1996, 36:312–315.
May A, Bahra A, Buchel C, et al.: Hypothalamic activation in cluster headache attacks. Lancet 1998, 352:275–278.
Russell D, von der Lippe A: Cluster headache: heart rate and blood pressure changes during spontaneous attacks. Cephalalgia 1982, 2:61–70.
Ferrari E, Canepari C, Bossolo PA, et al.: Changes of biological rhythms in primary headache syndromes. Cephalalgia 1983, 1(suppl):58–68.
Pfaffenrath V, Pollmann W, Ruther E, et al.: Onset of nocturnal attacks of chronic cluster headache in relation to sleep stages. Acta Neurol Scand 1986, 73:403–407.
Kudrow L: A possible role of the carotid body in the pathogenesis of cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1983, 33:241–247.
Gallagher RM: Drug Therapy for Headache. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1991.
Kudrow L: The pathogenesis of cluster headache. Curr Opin Neurol 1994, 7:278–282.
Polleri A, Nappi G, Murialdo G, et al.: Changes in the 24-hour prolactin pattern in cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1982, 2:1–7.
Kudrow L: Plasma testosterone and LH levels in cluster headache. Headache 1977, 17:91.
Chazot G, Claustrat B, Brun J, et al.: A chronobiological study of melatonin, cortisol growth hormone, and prolactin secretion in cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1984, 4:213–220.
Leone M, Lucini V, D’Amico D, et al.: Twenty-four-hour melatonin and cortisol plasma levels in relation to timing of cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1995, 15:224–229.
Leone M, D’Amico D, Moschiano F, et al.: Melatonin versus placebo in the prophylaxis of cluster headache: a doubleblind pilot study with parallel groups. Cephalalgia 1996, 16:494–496.
Leone M, D’Amico D, Moschiano F, et al.: A double-blind pilot study on the efficacy of oral melatonin in cluster headache prophylaxis. Eur J Neurol 1996, 3(suppl 5):87.
Peres MF, Rozen TD: Melatonin in the preventive treatment of chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2001, 21:993–995. The first study demonstrating that patients with chronic cluster headache who experience daytime and nocturnal attacks can receive benefit in alleviation of their cluster attacks with melatonin.
Alberca R, Botebol G, Boza F, Navarro A: Episodic cluster headache and narcolepsy: a case report. Cephalalgia 1991, 11:113–115.
Sahota PK, Dexter JD: Transient recurrent situational insomnia associated with cluster headache. Sleep 1993, 16:255–257.
Mathew NT: Sleep apnea and other sleep abnormalities in primary headache disorders. 5th International Migraine Symposium, London, 1984.
Chervin RD, Zallek SN, Lin X, et al.: Sleep disordered breathing in patients with cluster headache. Neurology 2000, 54:2302–2306. A key paper in which the authors perform polysomnography in patients with cluster headaches, demonstrating that sleep-disordered breathing, including sleep apnea, occurred in most of them. This suggests that, for patients with cluster headache, polysomnography should be performed to demonstrate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea.
Young T, Evans L, Finn L, Palta M: Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middleaged men and women. Sleep 1997, 20:705–706.
Kudrow L, McGinty DJ, Phillips ER, Stevenson M: Sleep apnea in cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1984, 4:33–38.
Shen JM, Schaanning J, White L, et al.: Cluster headache: the ventilatory response to transient hypoxia with pure nitrogen. Headache 1993, 33:476–482.
Chervin RD, Zallek SN, Lin X, et al.: Timing patterns of cluster headaches and association with symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Res Online 2000, 3:107–112. This study demonstrated an association between cluster headaches and obstructive sleep apnea symptoms typically occurring in the first half of the night, but not necessarily with sleep-related headaches. This key paper suggested that the physiologic consequences of sleep apnea may trigger cluster headaches during the early hours of sleep, thereby influencing the occurrence of subsequent daytime attacks. This confirmed earlier reports that cluster headaches almost always occur during nocturnal sleep periods. It also confirmed that obstructive sleep apnea can influence the course of cluster headaches.
Paiva T, Farinha A, Martins A, et al.: Chronic headaches and sleep disorders. Arch Intern Med 1997, 157:1701–1705.
Buckle P, Kerr P, Kryger M: Nocturnal cluster headache associated with sleep apnea: a case report. Sleep 1993, 16:487–489.
Nath Zallek S, Chervin RD: Improvement in cluster headache after treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med 2000, 1:135–138. An important study demonstrating marked improvement in cluster headaches in a patient when his obstructive sleep apnea was diagnosed and treated. The observations reported in this paper suggest that obstructive sleep apnea may trigger cluster headache attacks during certain periods.
Ludemann P, Frese A, Happe S, Evers S: Sleep disordered breathing in patients with cluster headache. Neurology 2001, 56:984.
Krieger J: Breathing during sleep in normal subjects. In Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, edn 2. Edited by Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1994:212–223.
Kudrow L: Cluster headache: a review. Clin J Pain 1989, 5:29–38.
Kudrow L: Response of cluster headache attacks to oxygen inhalation. Headache 1981, 21:1–4.
Costa A, Leston JA, Cavallini A, Nappi G: Cluster headache and periodic affective illness: common chronobiological features. Funct Neurol (Italy) 1998, 13:263–272. An excellent review discussing periodic conditions, such as cluster headache, seasonal affective disorder, and other mood disorders, and the connection with environmental events. Chronobiology and endocrinology and the associations with these illnesses are discussed in a good general review article.