Current Pain and Headache Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 486–491 | Cite as

Risk factors for chronic daily headache

  • Ann I. Scher
  • Richard B. Lipton
  • Walter Stewart


There are many people who experience headaches that are independent of illness, injury, or hangover. Approximately 4% of the population suffer from headaches on a daily or near-daily basis. It is apparent that patients with chronic daily headache in community samples differ in important ways from patients with chronic daily headache in subspecialty clinics. In this manuscript, we review clinic-based data on risk factors for chronic daily headache and summarize the current data on the epidemiology of chronic daily headache.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Rasmussen BK, Jensen R, Schroll M, Olesen J: Epidemiology of headache in a general population: a prevalence study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991, 44(11):1147–1157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Liberman J: Variation in migraine prevalence by race. Neurology 1996, 47(1):52–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scher AI, Stewart WF, Liberman J, Lipton RB: Prevalence of frequent headache in a population sample. Headache 1998, 38:497–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castillo J, Munoz P, Guitera V, Pascual J: Epidemiology of chronic daily headache in the general population. Headache 1999, 39:190–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang SJ, Fuh JL, Lu SR, et al.: Chronic daily headache in Chinese elderly: prevalence, risk factors, and biannual follow-up. Neurology 2000, 2000(54):314–319. This was the first study to consider prognostic factors in communitybased patients with chronic daily headache.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prencipe M, Casini AR, Ferretti C, et al.: Prevalence of headache in an elderly population: attack frequency, disability, and use of medication. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001, 70(3):377–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lu SR, Fuh JL, Chen WT, et al.: Chronic daily headache in Taipei, Taiwan: prevalence, follow-up, and outcome predictors. Cephalalgia 2001, 21(10):980–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagen K, Zwart JA, Vatten L, et al.: Prevalence of migraine and non-migrainous headache: head-HUNT, a large populationbased study. Cephalalgia 2000, 20(10):900–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pringsheim T, Howse D: In-patient treatment of chronic daily headache using dihydroergotamine: a long-term follow-up study. Can J Neurol Sci 1998, 25:146–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mathew NT, Reuveni U, Perez F: Transformed or evolutive migraine. Headache 1987, 27(2):102–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manzoni GC, Granella F, Sandrini G, et al.: Classification of chronic daily headache by International Headache Society criteria: limits and new proposals. Cephalalgia 1995, 15(1):37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sandrini G, Manzoni GC, Zanferrari C, Nappi G: An epidemiologic approach to the nosography of chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia 1993, 13(suppl 12):72–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Solomon S, Lipton RB, Newman LC: Clinical features of chronic daily headache. Headache 1992, 32(7):325–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    von Korff M, Galer BS, Stang P: Chronic use of symptomatic headache medications. Pain 1995, 62(2):179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scher AI: A Case-Control Study of Chronic Daily Headache In the General Population [dissertation]. The Johns Hopkins University; 2001.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB: Chronic daily headache, including transformed migraine, chronic tension-type headache, and medication overuse. In In Wolff’s Headache, edn 7. Edited by Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Dalessio DJ. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001:247–282.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Sliwinski M: Classification of daily and near-daily headaches: field trial of revised IHS criteria. Neurology 1996, 47(4):871–875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rothrock J, Patel M, Lyden P, Jackson C: Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with episodic migraine versus chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia 1996, 16(1):44–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saper JR: Daily chronic headache. Compr Ther 1992, 18(5):6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mathew NT, Stubits E, Nigam MP: Transformation of episodic migraine into daily headache: analysis of factors. Headache 1982, 22(2):66–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    De Benedittis G, Lorenzetti A, Pieri A: The role of stressful life events in the onset of chronic primary headache. Pain 1990, 40(1):65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holroyd KA, Stensland M, Lipchik GL, et al.: Psychosocial correlates and impact of chronic tension-type headache. Headache 2000, 40:3–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Juang KD, Wang SJ, Fuh JL, et al.: Comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders in chronic daily headache and its subtypes. Headache 2000, 40(10):818–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Verri AP, Proietti CA, Galli C, et al.: Psychiatric comorbidity in chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia 1998, 21(suppl 18):45–49.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Srikiatkhachorn A: Pathophysiology of chronic daily headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2001, 5(6):537–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moskowitz MA: Neurogenic inflammation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine. Neurology 1993, 43(6 supp l3):S16-S20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Post RM, Silberstein SD: Shared mechanisms in affective illness, epilepsy, and migraine. Neurology 1994, 44(10 suppl7):S37-S47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Diaz-Mitoma F, Vanast WJ, Tyrrell DL: Increased frequency of Epstein-Barr virus excretion in patients with new daily persistent headaches. Lancet 1987, 1(8530):411–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lance F, Parkes C, Wilkinson M: Does analgesic abuse cause headaches de novo? [letter]. Headache 1988, 28(1):61–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowdler I, Kilian J: The association between analgesic abuse and headache: coincidental or causal [letter]. Headache 1988, 28(7):494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bahra A, Walsh M, Menon D, Goadsby PJ: Does chronic daily headache arise de novo in association with regular analgesic use [abstract]. Cephalalgia 2000, 20:294.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wilkinson SM, Becker WJ, Heine JA: Opiate use to control bowel motility may induce chronic daily headache in patients with migraine. Headache 2001, 41(3):303–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Silverman K, Evans SM, Strain EC, Griffiths RR: Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. N Engl J Med 1992, 327(16):1109–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB: Chronic daily headache. In In Headache. Edited by Goadsby PJ, Silberstein SD. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1997:201–226.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Griffiths RR, Evans SM, Heishman SJ, et al.: Low-dose caffeine physical dependence in humans. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990, 255(3):1123–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society: Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias, and facial pain. Cephalalgia 1988, 8(suppl 7):1–96.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zed PJ, Loewen PS, Robinson G: Medication-induced headache: overview and systematic review of therapeutic approaches. Ann Pharmacother 1999, 33(1):61–72. Systemic review of medication-withdrawal protocols for chronic daily headache.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silberstein SD, Silberstein JR: Chronic daily headache: long-term prognosis following inpatient treatment with repetitive IV DHE. Headache 1992, 32(9):439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kudrow L: Paradoxical effects of frequent analgesic use. In In Headache: Physiopathologic and Clinical Concepts. Edited by Macdonald C. New York: Raven Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mathew NT, Kurman R, Perez F: Drug-induced refractory headache: clinical features and management. Headache 1990, 30(10):634–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Diener HC, Gerber WD, Geiselhart S, et al.: Short- and long-term effects of withdrawal therapy in drug-induced headache. In In Drug-Induced Headache. Edited by Diener HC, Wilkinson M. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1988:133–142.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carlsson J: Prevalence of headache in schoolchildren: relation to family and school factors. Acta Paediatr 1996, 85(6):692–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Egermark-Eriksson I: Prevalence of headache in Swedish schoolchildren: a questionnaire survey. Acta Paediatr Scandinavica 1982, 71(1):135–140.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rhee H: Prevalence and predictors of headaches in US adolescents. Headache 2000, 40(7):528–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB: Migraine and headache: a meta-analytic approach. In In The Epidemiology of Pain. Edited by Crombie IK. Seattle: IASP Press; 1999:159–170.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schwartz BS, Stewart WF, Simon D, Lipton RB: Epidemiology of tension-type headache. JAMA 1998, 279(5):381–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scher AI, Lipton RB, Stewart WF: Natural history and prognostic factors for chronic daily headache: results from the Frequent Headache Epidemiology Study. Neurology 2002, 58(suppl 3):A171.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB: Is analgesic use a risk factor for chronic daily headache? Neurology 2001, 56(8):A312.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Scher AI, Lipton RB, Stewart WF: Is caffeine consumption a risk factor for chronic daily headache: results from the Frequent Headache Epidemiology Study (FRHE)[abstract]. Cephalalgia 2001, 21(4):473.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Aaron LA, Buchwald D: A review of the evidence for overlap among unexplained clinical conditions. Ann Intern Med 2001, 134:868–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB: Snoring and chronic daily headache: results from the Frequent Headache Epidemiology Study. Neurology 2002, 58(suppl 3):A332.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stewart WF, Scher AI, Lipton RB: The Frequent Headache Epidemiology study (FrHE): stressful life events and risk of chronic daily headache. Neurology 2001, 56(8):A138-A139.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Silberstein SD, Lipton RB, Solomon S, Mathew NT: Classification of daily and near-daily headaches: proposed revisions to the IHS criteria. Headache 1994, 34(1):1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Krymchantowski AV, Barbosa JS: Prednisone as initial treatment of analgesic-induced daily headache. Cephalalgia 2000, 20:107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Katsarava Z, Fritsche G, Muessig M, et al.: Clinical features of withdrawal headache following overuse of triptans and other headache drugs. Neurology 2001, 57(9):1694–1698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smith TR: Low-dose tizanidine with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for detoxification from analgesic rebound headache. Headache 2002, 42(3):175–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Linton-Dahlof P, Linde M, Dahlof CGH: Withdrawal therapy improves chronic daily headache associated with long-term misuse of headache medication: a retrospective study. Cephalalgia 2000, 20:658–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pini LA, Bigarelli M, Vitale G, Sternieri E: Headaches associated with chronic use of analgesics: a therapeutic approach. Headache 1996, 36(7):433–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lake AE, Saper JR, Madden SF, Kreeger C: Comprehensive inpatient treatment for intractable migraine: a prospective long-term outcome study. Headache 1993, 33(2):55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lu SR, Fuh JL, Juang KD, Wang SJ: Repetitive intravenous prochlorperazine treatment of patients with refractory chronic daily headache. Headache 2000, 40:724–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schnider P, Aull S, Baumgartner C, et al.: Long-term outcome of patients with headache and drug abuse after inpatient withdrawal: 5-year follow-up. Cephalalgia 1996, 16(7):481–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann I. Scher
    • 1
  • Richard B. Lipton
    • 1
  • Walter Stewart
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and BiometryNational Institute on AgingBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations