Physical Activity for Strengthening Fracture Prone Regions of the Proximal Femur
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Purpose of Review
Physical activity improves proximal femoral bone health; however, it remains unclear whether changes translate into a reduction in fracture risk. To enhance any fracture-protective effects of physical activity, fracture prone regions within the proximal femur need to be targeted.
The proximal femur is designed to withstand forces in the weight-bearing direction, but less so forces associated with falls in a sideways direction. Sideways falls heighten femoral neck fracture risk by loading the relatively weak superolateral region of femoral neck. Recent studies exploring regional adaptation of the femoral neck to physical activity have identified heterogeneous adaptation, with adaptation principally occurring within inferomedial weight-bearing regions and little to no adaptation occurring in the superolateral femoral neck.
There is a need to develop novel physical activities that better target and strengthen the superolateral femoral neck within the proximal femur. Design of these activities may be guided by subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling and finite-element modeling approaches.
KeywordsBone density Bone mass Bone structure Exercise Femoral neck Osteoporosis
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
R.K., W.T., J.C.-G., M.K., and S.W. declare no conflict of interest. J.K. declares a patent issued (#9245069).
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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