Osteoporosis is characterized by systemic impairment of bone mass, strength, and microarchitecture, resulting in increased risk for fragility fracture, disability, loss of independence, and even death. Adequate nutrition is important in achieving and maintaining optimal bone mass, as well as preventing this debilitating disease. It is widely accepted that adequate calcium and vitamin D intake are necessary for good bone health; however, nutritional benefits to bone go beyond these two nutrients. This review article will provide updated information on all nutrients and foods now understood to alter bone health. Specifically, this paper will focus on related research from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study, an ancillary study of the Framingham Heart Study, with data on more than 5000 adult men and women.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
What is Osteoporosis? National Osteoporosis Foundation http://nof.org/articles/7.
Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Litin LB, Willett WC. Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(10):1114–26. discussion 1127–1136.
Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(1):51–65.
Prynne CJ, Mishra GD, O’Connell MA, Muniz G, Laskey MA, Yan L, et al. Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1420–8.
Macdonald HM, New SA, Golden MH, Campbell MK, Reid DM. Nutritional associations with bone loss during the menopausal transition: evidence of a beneficial effect of calcium, alcohol, and fruit and vegetable nutrients and of a detrimental effect of fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(1):155–65.
Hamidi M, Boucher BA, Cheung AM, Beyene J, Shah PS. Fruit and vegetable intake and bone health in women aged 45 years and over: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(6):1681–93.
Byberg L, Bellavia A, Orsini N, Wolk A, Michaelsson K. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of hip fracture: A cohort study of Swedish men and women. J Bone Miner Res 2014. This paper is of importance as many men and women were examined for their risk of fracture and a protective dose–response pattern was seen between fruit & vegetable intake with hip fracture .
Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Kiel DP. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(4):727–36.
Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Felson D, et al. Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):245–52.
Garrett IR, Boyce BF, Oreffo RO, Bonewald L, Poser J, Mundy GR. Oxygen-derived free radicals stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption in rodent bone in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1990;85(3):632–9.
Basu S, Michaelsson K, Olofsson H, Johansson S, Melhus H. Association between oxidative stress and bone mineral density. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288(1):275–9.
Key Jr LL, Ries WL, Taylor RG, Hays BD, Pitzer BL. Oxygen derived free radicals in osteoclasts: the specificity and location of the nitroblue tetrazolium reaction. Bone. 1990;11(2):115–9.
Gabbay KH, Bohren KM, Morello R, Bertin T, Liu J, Vogel P. Ascorbate synthesis pathway: dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(25):19510–20.
Peterkofsky B. Ascorbate requirement for hydroxylation and secretion of procollagen: relationship to inhibition of collagen synthesis in scurvy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(6 Suppl):1135S–40.
Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of ascorbic acid to bone mineral density and self-reported fractures among US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(5):427–33.
Hall SL, Greendale GA. The relation of dietary vitamin C intake to bone mineral density: results from the PEPI study. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998;63(3):183–9.
Morton DJ, Barrett-Connor EL, Schneider DL. Vitamin C supplement use and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(1):135–40.
Leveille SG, LaCroix AZ, Koepsell TD, Beresford SA, Van Belle G, Buchner DM. Dietary vitamin C and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women in Washington State. USA J Epidemiol Community Health. 1997;51(5):479–85.
Maggio D, Barabani M, Pierandrei M, Polidori MC, Catani M, Mecocci P, et al. Marked decrease in plasma antioxidants in aged osteoporotic women: results of a cross-sectional study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1523–7.
Melhus H, Michaelsson K, Holmberg L, Wolk A, Ljunghall S. Smoking, antioxidant vitamins, and the risk of hip fracture. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14(1):129–35.
Zhang J, Munger RG, West NA, Cutler DR, Wengreen HJ, Corcoran CD. Antioxidant intake and risk of osteoporotic hip fracture in Utah: an effect modified by smoking status. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(1):9–17.
Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, et al. High vitamin C intake is associated with lower 4-year bone loss in elderly men. J Nutr. 2008;138(10):1931–8.
Sahni S, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, et al. Protective effect of total and supplemental vitamin C intake on the risk of hip fracture—a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(11):1853–61.
Ruiz-Ramos M, Vargas LA, Van der Goes TI F, Cervantes-Sandoval A, Mendoza-Nunez VM. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(6):467–72.
Yamaguchi M, Uchiyama S. beta-Cryptoxanthin stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption in tissue culture in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;258(1–2):137–44.
Rao LG, Krishnadev N, Banasikowska K, Rao AV. Lycopene I—effect on osteoclasts: lycopene inhibits basal and parathyroid hormone-stimulated osteoclast formation and mineral resorption mediated by reactive oxygen species in rat bone marrow cultures. J Med Food. 2003;6(2):69–78.
Yamaguchi M, Uchiyama S. Effect of carotenoid on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat femoral tissues in vitro: the unique anabolic effect of b-cryptoxanthin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(8):1188–91.
Rao LG, Mackinnon ES, Josse RG, Murray TM, Strauss A, Rao AV. Lycopene consumption decreases oxidative stress and bone resorption markers in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2007;18(1):109–15.
Uchiyama S, Sumida T, Yamaguchi M. Oral administration of beta-cryptoxanthin induces anabolic effects on bone components in the femoral tissues of rats in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. 2004;27(2):232–5.
Yamaguchi M, Igarashi A, Uchiyama S, Morita S, Sugawara K, Sumida T. Prolonged intake of juice (Citrus Unshiu) reinforced with β-cryptoxanthin has an effect on circulating bone biochemical markers in normal individuals. J Home Sci. 2004;50(6):619–24.
Barker ME, McCloskey E, Saha S, Gossiel F, Charlesworth D, Powers HJ, et al. Serum retinoids and beta-carotene as predictors of hip and other fractures in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(6):913–20.
Sahni S, Hannan MT, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-year change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(1):416–24.
Sahni S, Hannan MT, Blumberg J, Cupples LA, Kiel DP, Tucker KL. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24(6):1086–94.
Dai Z, Wang R, Ang LW, Low YL, Yuan JM, Koh WP. Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(2):408–17.
Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, Josse RG, Rao LG. Supplementation with the antioxidant lycopene significantly decreases oxidative stress parameters and the bone resorption marker N-telopeptide of type I collagen in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(4):1091–101.
Mackinnon ES, Rao AV, Rao LG. Dietary restriction of lycopene for a period of 1 month resulted in significantly increased biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption in postmenopausal women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(2):133–8.
McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Tucker KL, Samelson EJ, Broe KE, et al. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(20):2042–9.
Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Qiao N, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Cupples LA, et al. Low Plasma Vitamin B(12) is associated with lower BMD: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(1):152–8.
McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Fredman L, Tucker KL, Samelson EJ, et al. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine, and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(6):2206–12.
van Wijngaarden JP, Doets EL, Szczecinska A, Souverein OW, Duffy ME, Dullemeijer C, et al. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, and bone health in adults and elderly people: a systematic review with meta-analyses. J Nutr Metab. 2013;2013:486186.
Sato Y, Honda Y, Iwamoto J, Kanoko T, Satoh K. Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;293(9):1082–8.
Sawka AM, Ray JG, Yi Q, Josse RG, Lonn E. Randomized clinical trial of homocysteine level lowering therapy and fractures. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(19):2136–9.
Gommans J, Yi Q, Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Chen C, Rodgers H, et al. The effect of homocysteine-lowering with B-vitamins on osteoporotic fractures in patients with cerebrovascular disease: substudy of VITATOPS, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2013;13:88.
van Wijngaarden JP, Swart KM, Enneman AW, Dhonukshe-Rutten RA, van Dijk SC, Ham AC, et al. Effect of daily vitamin B-12 and folic acid supplementation on fracture incidence in elderly individuals with an elevated plasma homocysteine concentration: B-PROOF, a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1578–86.
Binkley NC, Suttie JW. Vitamin K nutrition and osteoporosis. J Nutr. 1995;125(7):1812–21.
Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Gagnon DR, Cupples LA, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201–8.
Booth SL, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, Tucker KL, Hannan MT, McLean RR, et al. Vitamin K intake and bone mineral density in women and men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):512–6.
Booth SL, Broe KE, Peterson JW, Cheng DM, Dawson-Hughes B, Gundberg CM, et al. Associations between vitamin K biochemical measures and bone mineral density in men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(10):4904–9.
McLean RR, Booth SL, Kiel DP, Broe KE, Gagnon DR, Tucker KL, et al. Association of dietary and biochemical measures of vitamin K with quantitative ultrasound of the heel in men and women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17(4):600–7.
Hamidi MS, Gajic-Veljanoski O, Cheung AM. Vitamin K and bone health. J Clin Densitom. 2013;16(4):409–13.
Shah K, Gleason L, Villareal DT. Vitamin K and bone health in older adults. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;33(1):10–22.
Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256–61.
Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Takeda T. Efficacy of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases: meta-analysis of three randomized, controlled trials. Clin Drug Invest. 2009;29(7):471–9.
Fang Y, Hu C, Tao X, Wan Y, Tao F. Effect of vitamin K on bone mineral density: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012;30(1):60–8.
Huang ZB, Wan SL, Lu YJ, Ning L, Liu C, Fan SW. Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26(3):1175–86.
Bushinsky DA. Acid–base imbalance and the skeleton. Eur J Nutr. 2001;40(5):238–44.
Jehle S, Hulter HN, Krapf R. Effect of potassium citrate on bone density, microarchitecture, and fracture risk in healthy older adults without osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(1):207–17. This paper is of major importance as the RCT reports effects on BMD, bone microarchitecture as well as fracture outcomes.
Frassetto LA, Hardcastle AC, Sebastian A, Aucott L, Fraser WD, Reid DM, et al. No evidence that the skeletal non-response to potassium alkali supplements in healthy postmenopausal women depends on blood pressure or sodium chloride intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(12):1315–22.
Macdonald HM, Black AJ, Aucott L, Duthie G, Duthie S, Sandison R, et al. Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88(2):465–74.
McLean RR, Qiao N, Broe KE, Tucker KL, Casey V, Cupples LA, et al. Dietary acid load is not associated with lower bone mineral density except in older men. J Nutr. 2011;141(4):588–94.
Lemann Jr J, Pleuss JA, Gray RW. Potassium causes calcium retention in healthy adults. J Nutr. 1993;123(9):1623–6.
Kenney MA, McCoy H, Williams L. Effects of magnesium deficiency on strength, mass, and composition of rat femur. Calcif Tissue Int. 1994;54(1):44–9.
Farina EK, Kiel DP, Roubenoff R, Schaefer EJ, Cupples LA, Tucker KL. Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone mineral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):1142–51.
Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS. Higher sea fish intake is associated with greater bone mass and lower osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21(6):939–46.
Zalloua PA, Hsu YH, Terwedow H, Zang T, Wu D, Tang G, et al. Impact of seafood and fruit consumption on bone mineral density. Maturitas. 2007;56(1):1–11.
Mangano KM, Sahni S, Kerstetter JE, Kenny AM, Hannan MT. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their relation with bone and muscle health in adults. Curr Osteoporos Rep 2013. This paper is of major importance as it is an extensive review of the current knowledge and the gaps in knowledge for PUFA with bone and muscle.
Jarvinen R, Tuppurainen M, Erkkila AT, Penttinen P, Karkkainen M, Salovaara K, Jurvelin JS, Kroger H. Associations of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids with bone mineral density in elderly women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011.
Rousseau JH, Kleppinger A, Kenny AM. Self-reported dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and association with bone and lower extremity function. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(10):1781–8.
Farina EK, Kiel DP, Roubenoff R, Schaefer EJ, Cupples LA, Tucker KL. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hip bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27(5):1222–30.
Farina EK, Kiel DP, Roubenoff R, Schaefer EJ, Cupples LA, Tucker KL. Dietary intakes of arachidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are associated with reduced risk of hip fracture in older adults. J Nutr. 2011;141(6):1146–53.
Dietary guidelines for Americans (2005). Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 6th edn. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. In. Washington DC U.S. Government; 2005.
Kalkwarf HJ, Khoury JC, Lanphear BP. Milk intake during childhood and adolescence, adult bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):257–65.
Kull M, Kallikorm R, Lember M. Impact of molecularly defined hypolactasia, self-perceived milk intolerance and milk consumption on bone mineral density in a population sample in Northern Europe. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(4):415–21.
McCabe LD, Martin BR, McCabe GP, Johnston CC, Weaver CM, Peacock M. Dairy intakes affect bone density in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(4):1066–74.
Murphy S, Khaw KT, May H, Compston JE. Milk consumption and bone mineral density in middle aged and elderly women. BMJ. 1994;308(6934):939–41.
Teegarden D, Lyle RM, Proulx WR, Johnston CC, Weaver CM. Previous milk consumption is associated with greater bone density in young women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(5):1014–7.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Kanis JA, Orav EJ, Staehelin HB, et al. Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(4):833–9.
Feskanich D, Willett WC, Colditz GA. Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(2):504–11.
Feskanich D, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Frazier AL, Willett WC. Milk consumption during teenage years and risk of hip fractures in older adults. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(1):54–60. This paper is of major importance as it is a pivotal examination of milk consumption during bone accumulation and the possible fracture sequela in older adults.
Sahni S, Tucker KL, Kiel DP, Quach L, Casey VA, Hannan MT. Milk and yogurt consumption are linked with higher bone mineral density but not with hip fracture: the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Osteoporos. 2013;8(1–2):119.
Sahni S, Mangano KM, Tucker KL, Kiel DP, Casey VA, Hannan MT. Protective association of milk intake on the risk of hip fracture: results from the Framingham Original Cohort. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(8):1756–62. This paper is of major importance as it examines a population-based cohort and finds milk as consumed as an older adult to be protective against subsequent fracture.
Heaney RP, Layman DK. Amount and type of protein influences bone health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1567S–70.
Itoh R, Nishiyama N, Suyama Y. Dietary protein intake and urinary excretion of calcium: a cross-sectional study in a healthy Japanese population. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(3):438–44.
Johnson NE, Alcantara EN, Linkswiler H. Effect of level of protein intake on urinary and fecal calcium and calcium retention of young adult males. J Nutr. 1970;100(12):1425–30.
Kerstetter JE, Allen LH. Dietary protein increases urinary calcium. J Nutr. 1990;120(1):134–6.
Hannan MT, Tucker KL, Dawson-Hughes B, Cupples LA, Felson DT, Kiel DP. Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15(12):2504–12.
Munger RG, Cerhan JR, Chiu BC. Prospective study of dietary protein intake and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(1):147–52.
Promislow JH, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E. Protein consumption and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(7):636–44.
Cooper C, Atkinson EJ, Hensrud DD, Wahner HW, O’Fallon WM, Riggs BL, et al. Dietary protein intake and bone mass in women. Calcif Tissue Int. 1996;58(5):320–5.
Kerstetter JE, Looker AC, Insogna KL. Low dietary protein and low bone density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2000;66(4):313.
Freudenheim JL, Johnson NE, Smith EL. Relationships between usual nutrient intake and bone-mineral content of women 35–65 years of age: longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44(6):863–76.
Geinoz G, Rapin CH, Rizzoli R, Kraemer R, Buchs B, Slosman D, et al. Relationship between bone mineral density and dietary intakes in the elderly. Osteoporos Int. 1993;3(5):242–8.
Mazess RB, Barden HS. Bone density in premenopausal women: effects of age, dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, and birth-control pills [see comments]. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(1):132–42.
Metz JA, Anderson JJ, Gallagher Jr PN. Intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and protein, and physical-activity level are related to radial bone mass in young adult women [see comments]. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58(4):537–42.
Nieves JW. Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1232S–9.
Henderson NK, Price RI, Cole JH, Gutteridge DH, Bhagat CI. Bone density in young women is associated with body weight and muscle strength but not dietary intakes. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(3):384–93.
Wang MC, Luz Villa M, Marcus R, Kelsey JL. Associations of vitamin C, calcium and protein with bone mass in postmenopausal Mexican American women. Osteoporos Int. 1997;7(6):533–8.
Misra D, Berry SD, Broe KE, McLean RR, Cupples LA, Tucker KL, et al. Does dietary protein reduce hip fracture risk in elders? The Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(1):345–9.
Sahni S, Broe KE, Tucker KL, McLean RR, Kiel DP, Cupples LA, et al. Association of total protein intake with bone mineral density and bone loss in men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(11):2570–6.
Sahni S, Cupples LA, McLean RR, Tucker KL, Broe KE, Kiel DP, et al. Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(12):2770–6.
Carlisle EM. Silicon an essential element for the chick. Science. 1972;178:619–21.
Carlisle EM. Silicon: a requirement in bone formation independent of vitamin D1. Calcif Tissue Int. 1981;33(1):27–34.
Carlisle EM. Silicon. In: O’Dell BL, Sunde RA, editors. Handbook of nutritionally essential mineral elements. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1997. p. 603–18.
Jugdaohsingh R, Reffitt DM, Oldham C, Day JP, Fifield LK, Thompson RPH, et al. Oligomeric but not monomeric silica prevents aluminum absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:944–9.
Sripanyakorn S, Jugdaohsingh R, Elliott H, Walker C, Mehta P, Shoukru S, et al. The silicon content of beer and its bioavailability in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(3):403–9.
Spector TD, Calomme MR, Anderson SH, Clement G, Bevan L, Demeester N, et al. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid supplementation as an adjunct to calcium/vitamin D3 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteopenic females: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:85.
Tucker KL, Jugdaohsingh R, Powell JJ, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Sripanyakorn S, et al. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(4):1188–96.
Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, et al. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature. 2006;444(7117):337–42.
Zhou H, Shang L, Li X, Zhang X, Gao G, Guo C, et al. Resveratrol augments the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in promoting osteoblastic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315(17):2953–62.
Shakibaei M, Buhrmann C, Mobasheri A. Resveratrol-mediated SIRT-1 interactions with p300 modulate receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) activation of NF-kappaB signaling and inhibit osteoclastogenesis in bone-derived cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286(13):11492–505.
Zhao H, Li X, Li N, Liu T, Liu J, Li Z, et al. Long-term resveratrol treatment prevents ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in rats without hyperplastic effects on the uterus. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(5):836–46.
Ornstrup MJ, Harslof T, Kjaer TN, Langdahl BL, Pedersen SB. Resveratrol increases bone mineral density and bone alkaline phosphatase in obese men: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(12):4720–9. This paper is of major importance as one of the first studies to examine resveratrol with BMD and bone marker in a RCT.
Sahni S, Kiel DP. Smoking, alcohol, and bone health. In: Holick MF, Nieves JW, editors. Nutrition and Bone Health. 2nd edn. New York © Springer New York; 2015, XXXIX, 30: 489–504.
Jacobs Jr DR, Gross MD, Tapsell LC. Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1543S–8.
Hu FB. Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2002;13(1):3–9.
Mangano KM SS, Kiel DP, Tucker KL, Hannan MT. Individual protein food sources are associated with greater bone mineral density among men and women from the Framingham Offspring Study. American Society of Nutrition, Experimental Biology Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA 2014.
Karamati M, Jessri M, Shariati-Bafghi SE, Rashidkhani B. Dietary patterns in relation to bone mineral density among menopausal Iranian women. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;91(1):40–9.
Hardcastle AC, Aucott L, Fraser WD, Reid DM, Macdonald HM. Dietary patterns, bone resorption and bone mineral density in early post-menopausal Scottish women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(3):378–85.
Okubo H, Sasaki S, Horiguchi H, Oguma E, Miyamoto K, Hosoi Y, et al. Dietary patterns associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal Japanese farmwomen. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(5):1185–92.
Kiel DP, Myers RH, Cupples LA, Kong XF, Zhu XH, Ordovas J, et al. The BsmI vitamin D receptor restriction fragment length polymorphism (bb) influences the effect of calcium intake on bone mineral density. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(7):1049–57.
Karasik D, Myers RH, Hannan MT, Gagnon D, McLean RR, Cupples LA, et al. Mapping of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus bone to chromosome 1 by genome-wide linkage analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2002;13(10):796–802.
Ackert-Bicknell CL, Demissie S, Marin de Evsikova C, Hsu YH, DeMambro VE, Karasik D, et al. PPARG by dietary fat interaction influences bone mass in mice and humans. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(9):1398–408.
DP Kiel received grant (R01 AR 41398) from National Institute for Arthritis Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, during the conduct of the study.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
S Sahni has received research grants from General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. KM Mangano declares no conflicts of interest. RR McLean has received research grants from General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. MT Hannan has received research grants from General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition. DP Kiel declares no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All studies by S Sahni, KM Mangano, RR McLean, MT Hannan, and DP Kiel involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Nutrition, Exercise, and Lifestyle in Osteoporosis
About this article
Cite this article
Sahni, S., Mangano, K.M., McLean, R.R. et al. Dietary Approaches for Bone Health: Lessons from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Curr Osteoporos Rep 13, 245–255 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-015-0272-1
- Bone mineral density