The vestibular system is a small bilateral structure located in the inner ear, known as the organ of balance and spatial orientation. It senses head orientation and motion, as well as body motion in the three dimensions of our environment. It is also involved in non-motor functions such as postural control of blood pressure. These regulations are mediated via anatomical projections from vestibular nuclei to brainstem autonomic centers and are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular function via sympathetic nerves. Age-associated dysfunction of the vestibular organ contributes to an increased incidence of falls, whereas muscle atrophy, reduced physical activity, cellular aging, and gonadal deficiency contribute to bone loss. Recent studies in rodents suggest that vestibular dysfunction might also alter bone remodeling and mass more directly, by affecting the outflow of sympathetic nervous signals to the skeleton and other tissues. This review will summarize the findings supporting the influence of vestibular signals on bone homeostasis, and the potential clinical relevance of these findings.
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Sympathetic nervous system
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The authors would like to thank the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through grant NNX12AL35G (FE), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (GV, NASA NCC 9–58), the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013/ through REA grant #318980, and the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES, Grant #715) for their support of this work. We thank Dr. D. Perrien (VCBB) for critical reading of the manuscript.
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G Vignaux, S Besnard, P Denise, and F Elefteriou all declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All studies by the authors involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Skeletal Biology and Regulation
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Vignaux, G., Besnard, S., Denise, P. et al. The Vestibular System: A Newly Identified Regulator of Bone Homeostasis Acting Through the Sympathetic Nervous System. Curr Osteoporos Rep 13, 198–205 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-015-0271-2
- Vestibular system
- Sympathetic nervous system