Osteoporosis is associated with a number of lifestyle factors, including nutritional factors such as intake of calcium, protein, dairy food, fruits and vegetables and vitamin D status, and behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Ensuring adequate calcium intake and vitamin D status and having regular weight-bearing physical activity throughout life are important for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Studies have shown that smoking and excessive alcohol intake have adverse effects on bone health and increase the risk of fracture. There is evidence suggesting that adequate protein intake and higher intake of fruits and vegetables are beneficial to bone health.
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K Zhu and RL Prince both declare no conflicts of interest.
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All studies by the authors involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after the approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Nutrition, Exercise, and Lifestyle in Osteoporosis
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Zhu, K., Prince, R.L. Lifestyle and Osteoporosis. Curr Osteoporos Rep 13, 52–59 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11914-014-0248-6
- Bone mineral density
- Vitamin D
- Fruits and vegetables
- Physical activity
- Alcohol consumption