Advertisement

Current Osteoporosis Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 52–59 | Cite as

Lifestyle and Osteoporosis

  • Kun ZhuEmail author
  • Richard L. Prince
Nutrition, Exercise, and Lifestyle in Osteoporosis (CM Weaver and R Daly, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Nutrition, Exercise, and Lifestyle in Osteoporosis

Abstract

Osteoporosis is associated with a number of lifestyle factors, including nutritional factors such as intake of calcium, protein, dairy food, fruits and vegetables and vitamin D status, and behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Ensuring adequate calcium intake and vitamin D status and having regular weight-bearing physical activity throughout life are important for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Studies have shown that smoking and excessive alcohol intake have adverse effects on bone health and increase the risk of fracture. There is evidence suggesting that adequate protein intake and higher intake of fruits and vegetables are beneficial to bone health.

Keywords

Osteoporosis Bone mineral density Fracture Nutrition Calcium Vitamin D Protein Fruits and vegetables Physical activity Smoking Alcohol consumption 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

K Zhu and RL Prince both declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

All studies by the authors involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after the approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Nguyen ND, Ahlborg HG, Center JR, Eisman JA, Nguyen TV. Residual lifetime risk of fractures in women and men. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(6):781–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braun M, Palacios C, Wigertz K, Jackman LA, Bryant RJ, McCabe LD, et al. Racial differences in skeletal calcium retention in adolescent girls with varied controlled calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(6):1657–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yin J, Zhang Q, Liu A, Du W, Wang X, Hu X, et al. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents. Bone. 2010;46(1):162–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jackman LA, Millane SS, Martin BR, Wood OB, McCabe GP, Peacock M, et al. Calcium retention in relation to calcium intake and postmenarcheal age in adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):327–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braun M, Martin BR, Kern M, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Jiang Z, et al. Calcium retention in adolescent boys on a range of controlled calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):414–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.•
    Wu L, Martin BR, Braun MM, Wastney ME, McCabe GP, McCabe LD, et al. Calcium requirements and metabolism in Chinese-American boys and girls. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(8):1842–9. Using metabolic balance protocols and a range of calcium intake, this study showed that to achieve maximal calcium retention, calcium intake was reduced in Chinese-American adolescents than their white counterpart. These results have implication for the recommended calcium intake for children and adolescents from Asian background.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vatanparast H, Baxter-Jones A, Faulkner RA, Bailey DA, Whiting SJ. Positive effects of vegetable and fruit consumption and calcium intake on bone mineral accrual in boys during growth from childhood to adolescence: the University of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):700–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhu K, Greenfield H, Zhang Q, Du X, Ma G, Foo LH, et al. Growth and bone mineral accretion during puberty in Chinese girls: a five-year longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(2):167–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goulding A, Rockell JE, Black RE, Grant AM, Jones IE, Williams SM. Children who avoid drinking cow’s milk are at increased risk for prepubertal bone fractures. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004;104(2):250–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kalkwarf HJ, Khoury JC, Lanphear BP. Milk intake during childhood and adolescence, adult bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):257–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Winzenberg T, Shaw K, Fryer J, Jones G. Effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2006;333(7572):775.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B. Impact of dairy products and dietary calcium on bone-mineral content in children: results of a meta-analysis. Bone. 2008;43(2):312–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nordin BE, Need AG, Steurer T, Morris HA, Chatterton BE, Horowitz M. Nutrition, osteoporosis, and aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;854:336–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dawson-Hughes B. Calcium insufficiency and fracture risk. Osteoporos Int. 1996;6 Suppl 3:37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warensjo E, Byberg L, Melhus H, Gedeborg R, Mallmin H, Wolk A, et al. Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. 2011;342:d1473.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):657–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daly RM, Brown M, Bass S, Kukuljan S, Nowson C. Calcium- and vitamin D3-fortified milk reduces bone loss at clinically relevant skeletal sites in older men: a 2-year randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21(3):397–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lau EM, Lynn H, Chan YH, Woo J. Milk supplementation prevents bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women over 3 years. Bone. 2002;31(4):536–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.••
    Chung M, Lee J, Terasawa T, Lau J, Trikalinos TA. Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: an updated meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(12):827–38. An updated meta-analysis for the US Preventive Services Task Force in 2011 showed that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation can reduce fracture risk in older adults, but the effects were greater among institutionalized elderly persons comparing to community-dwelling older people.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Burckhardt P, Li R, Spiegelman D, et al. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(6):1780–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Baron JA, Kanis JA, Orav EJ, Staehelin HB, et al. Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(4):833–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sahni S, Mangano KM, Tucker KL, Kiel DP, Casey VA, Hannan MT. Protective association of milk intake on the risk of hip fracture: results from the Framingham Original Cohort. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(8):1756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reid IR, Bolland MJ, Grey A. Effect of calcium supplementation on hip fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2008;19(8):1119–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chapuy MC, Arlot MF, Duboeuf F, Brun J, Crouzet B, Arnaud S, et al. Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1992;327:1637–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chapuy MC, Pamphile R, Paris E, Kempf C, Schlichting M, Arnaud S, et al. Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int. 2002;13(3):257–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Prentice RL, Pettinger MB, Jackson RD, Wactawski-Wende J, Lacroix AZ, Anderson GL, et al. Health risks and benefits from calcium and vitamin D supplementation: Women’s Health Initiative clinical trial and cohort study. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(2):567–80.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. In: Institute of Medicine, editor. Washington DC: The National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bolland MJ, Wang TK, van Pelt NC, Horne AM, Mason BH, Ames RW, et al. Abdominal aortic calcification on vertebral morphometry images predicts incident myocardial infarction. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(3):505–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heaney RP. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(2 Suppl):83S–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Manios Y, Moschonis G, Trovas G, Lyritis GP. Changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone mineral density after a 12-mo dietary intervention program: the Postmenopausal Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(3):781–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhu K, Devine A, Suleska A, Tan CY, Toh CZ, Kerr D, et al. Adequacy and change in nutrient and food intakes with aging in a seven-year cohort study in elderly women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(9):723–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bolland MJ, Barber PA, Doughty RN, Mason B, Horne A, Ames R, et al. Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7638):262–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, Grey A, MacLennan GS, Gamble GD, et al. Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2010;341:c3691.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bockman RS, Zapalowski C, Kiel DP, Adler RA. Commentary on calcium supplements and cardiovascular events. J Clin Densitom. 2012;15(2):130–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weaver CM. Calcium supplementation: is protecting against osteoporosis counter to protecting against cardiovascular disease? Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2014;12(2):211–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lewis JR, Zhu K, Thompson PL, Prince RL. The effects of 3 years of calcium supplementation on common carotid artery intimal medial thickness and carotid atherosclerosis in older women: an ancillary study of the CAIFOS randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:534–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.••
    Lewis JR, Radavelli-Bagatini S, Rejnmark L, Chen JS, Simpson JM, Lappe JM, et al. The effects of calcium supplementation on verified coronary heart disease hospitalization and death in postmenopausal women: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Res. 2014. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2311. The most recent meta-analysis which included 18 randomized controlled trials encompassing 63,563 postmenopausal women showed that calcium supplementation with or without vitamin D does not increase the risk of coronary heart disease or all-cause mortality.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lips P. Vitamin D, deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly: consequences for bone loss and fractures and therapeutic implications. Endocr Rev. 2001;22(4):477–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Priemel M, von Domarus C, Klatte TO, Kessler S, Schlie J, Meier S, et al. Bone mineralization defects and vitamin D deficiency: histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest bone biopsies and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 675 patients. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(2):305–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, Dawson-Hughes B. Positive association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and bone mineral density: a population-based study of younger and older adults. Am J Med. 2004;116(9):634–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kuchuk NO, Pluijm SM, van Schoor NM, Looman CW, Smit JH, Lips P. Relationships of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to bone mineral density and serum parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover in older persons. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(4):1244–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ooms ME, Lips P, Roos JC, van der Vijgh WJ, Popp-Snijders C, Bezemer PD, et al. Vitamin D status and sex hormone binding globulin: determinants of bone turnover and bone mineral density in elderly women. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(8):1177–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Garnero P, Munoz F, Sornay-Rendu E, Delmas PD. Associations of vitamin D status with bone mineral density, bone turnover, bone loss and fracture risk in healthy postmenopausal women. The OFELY study. Bone. 2007;40(3):716–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Reid IR, Bolland MJ, Grey A. Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014;383(9912):146–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reid IR. Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone density. J Endocrinol Investig. 2014.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhu K, Devine A, Dick IM, Wilson SG, Prince RL. Effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on hip bone mineral density and calcium-related analytes in elderly ambulatory Australian women: a five-year randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(3):743–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pfeifer M, Begerow B, Minne HW, Schlotthauer T, Pospeschill M, Scholz M, et al. Vitamin D status, trunk muscle strength, body sway, falls, and fractures among 237 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109(2):87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    van Schoor NM, Visser M, Pluijm SM, Kuchuk N, Smit JH, Lips P. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Bone. 2008;42(2):260–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Looker AC, Mussolino ME. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hip fracture risk in older U.S. white adults. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(1):143–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nakamura K, Saito T, Oyama M, Oshiki R, Kobayashi R, Nishiwaki T, et al. Vitamin D sufficiency is associated with low incidence of limb and vertebral fractures in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women: the Muramatsu Study. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(1):97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Barbour KE, Houston DK, Cummings SR, Boudreau R, Prasad T, Sheu Y, et al. Calciotropic hormones and the risk of hip and nonspine fractures in older adults: the Health ABC Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27(5):1177–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.••
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Orav EJ, Lips P, Meunier PJ, Lyons RA, et al. A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(1):40–9. A recent pooled analysis of 11 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials of oral vitamin D supplementation in older people showed that those in the highest quartile of actual vitamin D intake (range of 792–2000 IU/day) had a lower risk for hip and non-vertebral fracture, thus suggesting that vitamin D intake of 800 IU/day and above could play a role in hip and non-vertebral fracture prevention.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    MacLaughlin J, Holick MF. Aging decreases the capacity of human skin to produce vitamin D3. J Clin Invest. 1985;76(4):1536–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sambrook PN, Cameron ID, Chen JS, Cumming RG, Durvasula S, Herrmann M, et al. Does increased sunlight exposure work as a strategy to improve vitamin D status in the elderly: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(2):615–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gallagher JC, Peacock M, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in older African American women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(3):1137–46.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barzel US, Massey LK. Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone. J Nutr. 1998;128(6):1051–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kerstetter JE, O’Brien KO, Insogna KL. Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):584S–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rizzoli R, Stevenson JC, Bauer JM, van Loon LJ, Walrand S, Kanis JA, et al. The role of dietary protein and vitamin D in maintaining musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women: a consensus statement from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). Maturitas. 2014.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hannan MT, Tucker KL, Dawson-Hughes B, Cupples LA, Felson DT, Kiel DP. Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15(12):2504–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Promislow JHE, Goodman-Gruen D, Slymen DJ, Barrett-Connor E. Protein consumption and bone mineral density in the elderly: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(7):636–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Devine A, Dick IM, Islam AF, Dhaliwal SS, Prince RL. Protein consumption is an important predictor of lower limb bone mass in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(6):1423–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Meng X, Zhu K, Devine A, Kerr DA, Binns CW, Prince RL. A 5‐year cohort study of the effects of high protein intake on lean mass and BMC in elderly postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24(11):1827–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Darling AL, Millward DJ, Torgerson DJ, Hewitt CE, Lanham-New SA. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(6):1674–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sukumar D, Ambia-Sobhan H, Zurfluh R, Schlussel Y, Stahl TJ, Gordon CL, et al. Areal and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at two levels of protein intake during caloric restriction: a randomized, controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(6):1339–48.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.•
    Zhu K, Meng X, Kerr DA, Devine A, Solah V, Binns CW, et al. The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(9):2298–306. The only long-term dietary protein intervention trial in older people with bone density and structure as study outcomes. The study showed that protein intervention did not benefit bone density or strength but led to significantly higher IGF-I levels. The lack of effect could be due to the relatively high usual dietary protein intake of the study subjects at baseline.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), New Zealand. Ministry of Health, Australia. Department of Health and Ageing. Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand: including recommended dietary intakes. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2006.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Schurch MA, Rizzoli R, Slosman D, Vadas L, Vergnaud P, Bonjour JP. Protein supplements increase serum insulin-like growth factor-I levels and attenuate proximal femur bone loss in patients with recent hip fracture. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(10):801–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    New SA, Robins SP, Campbell MK, Martin JC, Garton MJ, Bolton-Smith C, et al. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):142–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhu K, Devine A, Prince RL. The effects of high potassium consumption on bone mineral density in a prospective cohort study of elderly postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(2):335–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the prevention of fractures: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Trzeciakiewicz A, Habauzit V, Horcajada MN. When nutrition interacts with osteoblast function: molecular mechanisms of polyphenols. Nutr Res Rev. 2009;22(1):68–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hunter DC, Skinner MA, Lister CE. Impact of phytochemicals on maintaining bone and joint health. Nutrition. 2008;24(4):390–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hamidi M, Boucher BA, Cheung AM, Beyene J, Shah PS. Fruit and vegetable intake and bone health in women aged 45 years and over: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(6):1681–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Langsetmo L, Hanley DA, Prior JC, Barr SI, Anastassiades T, Towheed T, et al. Dietary patterns and incident low-trauma fractures in postmenopausal women and men aged ≥ 50 y: a population-based cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(1):192–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Xie HL, Wu BH, Xue WQ, He MG, Fan F, Ouyang WF, et al. Greater intake of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a 1:1 matched case-control study. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(11):2827–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Frost HM. Bone “mass” and the “mechanostat”: a proposal. Anat Rec. 1987;219(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Daly RM. The effect of exercise on bone mass and structural geometry during growth. Med Sport Sci. 2007;51:33–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gomez-Cabello A, Ara I, Gonzalez-Aguero A, Casajus JA, Vicente-Rodriguez G. Effects of training on bone mass in older adults: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2012;42(4):301–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zehnacker CH, Bemis-Dougherty A. Effect of weighted exercises on bone mineral density in post menopausal women. A systematic review. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2007;30(2):79–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.•
    Bolam KA, van Uffelen JG, Taaffe DR. The effect of physical exercise on bone density in middle-aged and older men: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(11):2749–62. A recent systematic review summarized eight randomized controlled trials in middle-aged and older men. The review showed that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities is mostly osteogenic, whereas walking had a limited effect on BMD.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kelsey JL. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures. Public Health Rep. 1989;104(Suppl):14–20.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Eleftheriou KI, Rawal JS, James LE, Payne JR, Loosemore M, Pennell DJ, et al. Bone structure and geometry in young men: the influence of smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. Bone. 2013;52(1):17–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lucas R, Fraga S, Ramos E, Barros H. Early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as a predictor of lower forearm bone mineral density in late adolescence: a cohort study in girls. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e46940.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Callreus M, McGuigan F, Akesson K. Adverse effects of smoking on peak bone mass may be attenuated by higher body mass index in young female smokers. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;93(6):517–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ward KD, Klesges RC. A meta-analysis of the effects of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2001;68(5):259–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, De Laet C, Eisman JA, et al. Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16(2):155–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tansavatdi K, McClain B, Herrington DM. The effects of smoking on estradiol metabolism. Minerva Ginecol. 2004;56(1):105–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    de Vernejoul MC, Bielakoff J, Herve M, Gueris J, Hott M, Modrowski D, et al. Evidence for defective osteoblastic function. A role for alcohol and tobacco consumption in osteoporosis in middle-aged men. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983;179:107–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Iqbal J, Sun L, Cao J, Yuen T, Lu P, Bab I, et al. Smoke carcinogens cause bone loss through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induction of Cyp1 enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110(27):11115–20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ma D, Li Y, Hackfort B, Zhao Y, Xiao J, Swanson PC, et al. Smoke-induced signal molecules in bone marrow cells from altered low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 mice. J Proteome Res. 2012;11(7):3548–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Law MR, Hackshaw AK. A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect. BMJ. 1997;315(7112):841–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Oncken C, Prestwood K, Kleppinger A, Wang Y, Cooney J, Raisz L. Impact of smoking cessation on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(10):1141–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.•
    Sommer I, Erkkila AT, Jarvinen R, Mursu J, Sirola J, Jurvelin JS, et al. Alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in elderly women. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(4):704–12. A recent review summarized the effects of three different means of alcohol consumption: light, heavy and binge drinking on bone health, and it discussed the possible mechanisms.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Williams FM, Cherkas LF, Spector TD, MacGregor AJ. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on bone mineral density: a study of female twins. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64(2):309–10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Drake MT, Murad MH, Mauck KF, Lane MA, Undavalli C, Elraiyah T, et al. Clinical review. Risk factors for low bone mass-related fractures in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(6):1861–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Maurel DB, Boisseau N, Benhamou CL, Jaffre C. Alcohol and bone: review of dose effects and mechanisms. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23(1):1–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Torricelli P, Fini M, Giavaresi G, Borsari V, Rimondini L, Rimondini R, et al. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor affects osteoblast behaviour more severely than estrogen deficiency does in vitro study on rat osteoblasts. Toxicology. 2007;237(1–3):168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dai J, Lin D, Zhang J, Habib P, Smith P, Murtha J, et al. Chronic alcohol ingestion induces osteoclastogenesis and bone loss through IL-6 in mice. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(7):887–95.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and DiabetesSir Charles Gairdner HospitalPerthAustralia
  2. 2.School of Medicine and PharmacologyUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations