Satin JR, Linden W, Phillips MJ. Depression as a predictor of disease progression and mortality in cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2009;115(22):5349–61.
Metcalfe C, Davey Smith G, Macleod J, Hart C. The role of self-reported stress in the development of breast cancer and prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study of employed males and females with 30 years of follow-up. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43(6):1060–5.
Chrousos GP, Gold PW. The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. JAMA. 1992;267(9):1244–52.
Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Adler NE, Morrow JD, et al. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(49):17312–5.
Torpy JM, Lynm C, Glass RM. JAMA patient page. Chronic stress and the heart. JAMA. 2007;298(14):1722.
Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE. Psychological stress and disease. JAMA. 2007;298(14):1685–7.
Chang L. The role of stress on physiologic responses and clinical symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2011;140(3):761–5.
Hammen C. Stress and depression. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1:293–319.
Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK, Antoni MH. Host factors and cancer progression: biobehavioral signaling pathways and interventions. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(26):4094–9.
Sloan EK, Priceman SJ, Cox BF, Yu S, Pimentel MA, Tangkanangnukul V, et al. The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70(18):7042–52.
Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK, Anderson B, McGinn S, Maiseri H, Dao M, et al. Social support, psychological distress, and natural killer cell activity in ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(28):7105–13.
Antoni MH, Lutgendorf SK, Cole SW, Dhabhar FS, Sephton SE, McDonald PG, et al. The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: pathways and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6(3):240–8.
Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK. Biobehavioral factors and cancer progression: physiological pathways and mechanisms. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(9):724–30.
Lutgendorf SK, DeGeest K, Dahmoush L, Farley D, Penedo F, Bender D, et al. Social isolation is associated with elevated tumor norepinephrine in ovarian carcinoma patients. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25(2):250–5.
Thaker PH, Han LY, Kamat AA, Arevalo JM, Takahashi R, Lu C, et al. Chronic stress promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in a mouse model of ovarian carcinoma. Nat Med. 2006;12(8):939–44.
Armaiz-Pena GN, Cole SW, Lutgendorf SK, Sood AK. Neuroendocrine influences on cancer progression. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;30:S19–25. This manuscript outlines the biological mechanisms whereby chronic stress responding can lead to procession of disease and make the tumor microenvironment more hospital to tumor growth.
Sood AK, Armaiz-Pena GN, Haider J, Nick AM, Stone RL, Hu W, et al. Adrenergic modulation of focal adhesion kinase protects human ovarian cancer cells from anoikis. J Clin Investig. 2010;120(5):1515–23.
Armaiz-Pena GN, Allen JK, Cruz A, Stone RL, Nick AM, Lin YG, et al. Src activation by beta-adrenoreceptors is a key switch for tumour metastasis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1403.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology TM distress management V.1.2010. 2010. www.nccn.org. Accessed 15 Mar 2010.
Sharpe M, Walker J, Hansen CH, Martin P, Symeonides S, Gourley C, et al. Integrated collaborative care for comorbid major depression in patients with cancer (SMaRT Oncology-2): a multicentre randomised controlled effectiveness trial. Lancet. 2014;384(9948): 1099-108. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61231-9.
Walker J, Hansen CH, Martin P, Symeonides S, Gourley C, Wall L, et al. Integrated collaborative care for major depression comorbid with a poor prognosis cancer (SMaRT Oncology-3): a multicentre randomised controlled trial in patients with lung cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(10):1168–76.
Chen Z, Meng ZQ, Milbury K, Bei W, Zhang Y, Thornton B, et al. Qigong improves quality of life in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2013;119(9):1690–8.
Dusek JA, Otu HH, Wohlhueter AL, Bhasin M, Zerbini LF, Joseph MG, et al. Genomic counter-stress changes induced by the relaxation response. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]. 2008;3(7):e2576.
Carlson LE, Doll R, Stephen J, Faris P, Tamagawa R, Drysdale E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cancer recovery versus supportive expressive group therapy for distressed survivors of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(25):3119–26. A modified MBSR program for breast cancer survivors experiencing distress found the intervention resulted in lower symptoms of stress compared to a supportive expressive therapy program and a brief education control group, and improved QOL compared to the control group. Contrary to their hypothesis, the mindfulness intervention also resulted in higher levels of social support compared to supportive expressive therapy. In addition, both interventions resulted in more normative diurnal cortisol profiles than the control group.
Mustian KM, Sprod LK, Janelsins M, Peppone LJ, Palesh OG, Chandwani K, et al. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial of yoga for sleep quality among cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(26):3233–41. Largest RCT to date examining the benefits of yoga in cancer survivors. Patients experiencing clinically significant sleep disturbances were randomized to a yoga group or usual care. Yoga participants reported improved subjective and objective sleep outcomes.
Chandwani KD, Thornton B, Perkins GH, Arun B, Raghuram NV, Nagendra HR, et al. Yoga improves quality of life and benefit finding in women undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2010;8(2):43–55.
Chandwani KD, Perkins G, Nagendra HR, Raghuram NV, Spelman A, Nagarathna R, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of yoga in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(10):1058-65. doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.48.2752. First RCT in an oncology population to show that the benefits of yoga go beyond the benefits of simple stretching exercises and usual care leading to reduction of fatigue, increase physical functioning, better general health reports, and better cortisol regulation for women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.
Milbury K, Chaoul A, Biegler K, Wangyal T, Spelman A, Meyers CA, et al. Tibetan sound meditation for cognitive dysfunction: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial. Psychooncology. 2013.
Wells RE, Yeh GY, Kerr CE, Wolkin J, Davis RB, Tan Y, et al. Meditation’s impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurosci Lett. 2013;556:15–9. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.001.
Holzel BK, Carmody J, Vangel M, Congleton C, Yerramsetti SM, Gard T, et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. 2011;191(1):36–43.
Jindal V, Gupta S, Das R. Molecular mechanisms of meditation. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;48(3):808–11.
Buffart LM, van Uffelen JG, Riphagen II, Brug J, van Mechelen W, Brown WJ, et al. Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:559.
Lepore SJ, Coyne JC. Psychological interventions for distress in cancer patients: a review of reviews. Ann Behav Med. 2006;32(2):85–92.
Archie P, Bruera E, Cohen L. Music-based interventions in palliative cancer care: a review of quantitative studies and neurobiological literature. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21(9):2609–24.
Svensk AC, Oster I, Thyme KE, Magnusson E, Sjodin M, Eisemann M, et al. Art therapy improves experienced quality of life among women undergoing treatment for breast cancer: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2009;18(1):69–77.
Milbury K, Spelman A, Wood C, Matin SF, Tannir N, Jonasch E, et al. Randomized controlled trial of expressive writing for patients with renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(7):663–70.
Wallace RK, Benson H, Wilson AF. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. Am J Physiol. 1971;221(3):795–9.
Wurtzen H, Dalton SO, Elsass P, Sumbundu AD, Steding-Jensen M, Karlsen RV, et al. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression: results of a randomised controlled trial among 336 Danish women treated for stage I-III breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(6):1365–73.
Hoffman CJ, Ersser SJ, Hopkinson JB, Nicholls PG, Harrington JE, Thomas PW. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in mood, breast- and endocrine-related quality of life, and well-being in stage 0 to III breast cancer: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(12):1335–42.
Garland SN, Tamagawa R, Todd SC, Speca M, Carlson LE. Increased mindfulness is related to improved stress and mood following participation in a mindfulness-based stress reduction program in individuals with cancer. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12(1):31–40.
Carlson LE, Ursuliak Z, Goodey E, Angen M, Speca M. The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9(2):112–23.
Zernicke KA, Campbell TS, Speca M, McCabe-Ruff K, Flowers S, Carlson LE. A randomized wait-list controlled trial of feasibility and efficacy of an online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program: the eTherapy for cancer applying mindfulness trial. Psychosom Med. 2014;76(4):257–67.
Weitz MV, Fisher K, Lachman VD. The journey of women with breast cancer who engage in mindfulness-based stress reduction: a qualitative exploration. Holist Nurs Pract. 2012;26(1):22–9.
Leal I, Engebretson J, Cohen L, Rodriguez A, Wangyal T, Lopez G, et al. Experiences of paradox: a qualitative analysis of living with cancer using a framework approach. Psychooncology. 2014.
Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. Applications of integrated approach of yoga therapy—a review. A new life for asthmatics. Vivekananda Kendra; 1986.
Telles S, Naveen KV. Yoga for rehabilitation: an overview. Indian J Med Sci. 1997;51(4):123–7.
Lin KY, Hu YT, Chang KJ, Lin HF, Tsauo JY. Effects of yoga on psychological health, quality of life, and physical health of patients with cancer: a meta-analysis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Medi eCAM. 2011;2011:659876.
Cramer H, Lange S, Klose P, Paul A, Dobos G. Yoga for breast cancer patients and survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:412.
Harder H, Parlour L, Jenkins V. Randomised controlled trials of yoga interventions for women with breast cancer: a systematic literature review. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(12):3055–64.
Bower JE, Garet D, Sternlieb B, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Olmstead R, et al. Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2012;118(15):3766–75.
Bower JE, Greendale G, Crosswell AD, Garet D, Sternlieb B, Ganz PA, et al. Yoga reduces inflammatory signaling in fatigued breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;43:20–9.
Bower JE, Ganz PA, Irwin MR, Kwan L, Breen EC, Cole SW. Inflammation and behavioral symptoms after breast cancer treatment: do fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance share a common underlying mechanism? J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(26):3517–22.
Bower JE, Lamkin DM. Inflammation and cancer-related fatigue: mechanisms, contributing factors, and treatment implications. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;30(Suppl):S48–57.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Bennett JM, Andridge R, Peng J, Shapiro CL, Malarkey WB, et al. Yoga’s impact on inflammation, mood, and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(10):1040–9. Large RCT in beast cancer survivors showing the benefits of yoga at improving fatigue and vitality as well as reducing inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, there was evidence that the more the patients practiced yoga the better their outcomes.
Kumar N, Bhatnagar S, Velpandian T, Patnaik S, Menon G, Mehta M, et al. Randomized controlled trial in advance stage breast cancer patients for the effectiveness on stress marker and pain through Sudarshan Kriya and Pranayam. Indian J Palliat Care. 2013;19(3):180–5.
Fouladbakhsh JM, Davis JE, Yarandi HN. A pilot study of the feasibility and outcomes of yoga for lung cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014;41(2):162–74.
Fouladbakhsh JM, Davis JE, Yarandi HN. Using a standardized Viniyoga protocol for lung cancer survivors: a pilot study examining effects on breathing ease. J Complement Integr Med. 2013;10.
Martin AC, Keats MR. The impact of yoga on quality of life and psychological distress in caregivers for patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014;41(3):257–64.
Milbury K, Chaoul A, Engle R, Liao Z, Yang C, Carmack C, et al. Couple-based Tibetan yoga program for lung cancer patients and their caregivers. Psychooncology. 2014.
Oh B, Butow P, Mullan B, Hale A, Lee MS, Guo X, et al. A critical review of the effects of medical qigong on quality of life, immune function, and survival in cancer patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2011.
Oh B, Butow PN, Mullan BA, Clarke SJ, Beale PJ, Pavlakis N, et al. Effect of medical qigong on cognitive function, quality of life, and a biomarker of inflammation in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20(6):1235–42. doi:10.1007/s00520-011-1209-6.
Zeng Y, Luo T, Xie H, Huang M, Cheng AS. Health benefits of qigong or tai chi for cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Complement Ther Med. 2014;22(1):173–86.
Fong SS, Ng SS, Luk WS, Chung LM, Wong JY, Chung JW. Effects of qigong training on health-related quality of life, functioning, and cancer-related symptoms in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer: a pilot study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med eCAM. 2014;2014:495274.
Wang R, Liu J, Chen P, Yu D. Regular tai chi exercise decreases the percentage of type 2 cytokine-producing cells in postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 2013;36(4):E27–34.
Mustian KM, Katula JA, Gill DL, Roscoe JA, Lang D, Murphy K. Tai Chi Chuan, health-related quality of life and self-esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors. Support Care Cancer. 2004;12(12):871–6.
Mustian KM, Katula JA, Zhao H. A pilot study to assess the influence of tai chi chuan on functional capacity among breast cancer survivors. J Support Oncol. 2006;4(3):139–45.
Fong SS, Ng SS, Luk WS, Chung JW, Chung LM, Tsang WW, et al. Shoulder mobility, muscular strength, and quality of life in breast cancer survivors with and without Tai Chi qigong training. Evidence Based Complement Alternat Med eCAM. 2013;2013:787169.
Fong SS, Ng SS, Luk WS, Chung JW, Ho JS, Ying M, et al. Effects of qigong exercise on upper limb lymphedema and blood flow in survivors of breast cancer: a pilot study. Integr Cancer Ther. 2014;13(1):54–61.
Cohen KS. The way of qigong: the art and science of Chinese energy healing. 1st ed. New York: Ballentine Books; 1997.
Wang C, Schmid CH, Rones R, Kalish R, Yinh J, Goldenberg DL, et al. A randomized trial of tai chi for fibromyalgia. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(8):743–54.
Yan JH, Pan L, Zhang XM, Sun CX, Cui GH. Lack of efficacy of Tai Chi in improving quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev APJCP. 2014;15(8):3715–20.
Campo RA, Agarwal N, LaStayo PC, O’Connor K, Pappas L, Boucher KM, et al. Levels of fatigue and distress in senior prostate cancer survivors enrolled in a 12-week randomized controlled trial of qigong. J Cancer Surviv. 2014;8(1):60–9.
Fong SS, Ng SS, Luk WS, Chung JW, Leung JC, Masters RS. Effects of a 6-month Tai Chi qigong program on arterial hemodynamics and functional aerobic capacity in survivors of nasopharyngeal cancer. J Cancer Surviv. 2014.
Holzel BK, Hoge EA, Greve DN, Gard T, Creswell JD, Brown KW, et al. Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training. NeuroImage Clin. 2013;2:448–58. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.03.011.
Villemure C, Ceko M, Cotton VA, Bushnell MC. Insular cortex mediates increased pain tolerance in yoga practitioners. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24(10):2732–40.