The incidence of melanoma has continued to rise dramatically over the past few decades, especially in young females. Due to the deadly nature of this disease, melanoma has become an important public health problem. It is generally accepted that ultraviolet light radiation (UVR) from sunlight is a major risk factor for melanoma skin cancer development. However, the mechanistic details of how sunlight via UVR causes melanoma are still being elucidated. Currently, it is thought that carcinogenic, inflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of UVR all contribute to initiation, progression, and metastasis of primary melanoma. We review current findings on how sunlight-generated UVR generates DNA damage, inflammation, and immune suppression, thus leading to melanoma.
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Garibyan, L., Fisher, D.E. How Sunlight Causes Melanoma. Curr Oncol Rep 12, 319–326 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-010-0119-y