Optical Coherence Tomography to Differentiate Papilledema from Pseudopapilledema

  • Gema Rebolleda
  • Aki Kawasaki
  • Victoria de JuanEmail author
  • Noelia Oblanca
  • Francisco Jose Muñoz-Negrete
Neuro-Ophthalmology (A Kawasaki, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Neuro-Ophthalmology


Purpose of Review

Mild papilledema may be difficult to distinguish by clinical observation from pseudopapilledema. An accurate diagnosis is critical to avoid invasive workup and unwarranted treatment. In this review, we focus on the development and subsequent role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting and differentiating optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) from papilledema and other causes of acquired swelling of the optic disc.

Recent Findings

Newer OCT technologies which permit deeper penetration to improve detection of ONHD were also reviewed. Enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain OCT and swept-source (SS) OCT are currently recognized as the most reliable and sensitive tools to diagnose ONHD.


OCT devices currently available provide a means to quantify drusen dimensions, to evaluate the integrity of neighboring structures and to monitor axonal and neuronal damage, yielding additional information to better understand the relationship between the morphological features of drusen, and their effects on the structure and function of the optic nerve.


Optic disc drusen Enhanced depth imaging Optical coherence tomography Papilledema Pseudo-papilledema 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Gema Rebolleda, Aki Kawasaki, Victoria de Juan, Noelia Oblanca, and Francisco Jose Muñoz Negrete declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017
Corrected publication August/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gema Rebolleda
    • 1
  • Aki Kawasaki
    • 2
  • Victoria de Juan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Noelia Oblanca
    • 1
  • Francisco Jose Muñoz-Negrete
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyHospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal (IRYCIS)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyHopital Ophtalmique Jules Gonin, University LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

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