Headaches: a Review of the Role of Dietary Factors

  • Zoya Zaeem
  • Lily Zhou
  • Esma DilliEmail author
Headache (RB Halker, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Headache


Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past. This review focuses the evidence linking these compounds to headache and examines the prevalence of these triggers from prior population-based studies. Recent literature surrounding headache related to fasting and weight loss as well as elimination diets based on serum food antibody testing will also be summarized to help physicians recommend low-risk, non-pharmacological adjunctive therapies for patients with debilitating headaches.


Headaches Migraines Dietary triggers Caffeine Elimination diets Biogenic amines 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, and Esma Dilli declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Rasmussen BK, Jensen R, Schroll M, Olesen J. Epidemiology of headache in a general population—a prevalence study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:1147–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martelletti P, Birbeck G, Katsarava Z, et al. The Global Burden of Disease survey 2010, lifting the burden and thinking outside-the-box on headache disorders. J Headache Pain. 2013;14(1):13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hawkins K, Wang S, Rupnow M. Direct cost burden among insured US employees with migraine. Headache. 2008;48:553–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Taylor F. Nutraceuticals and headache: the biological basis. Headache. 2011;51:484–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.••
    Orr SL. Diet and nutraceutical interventions for headache management: a review of the evidence. Cephalalgia. 2015. Literature review demonstrated generally poor quality of evidence on the efficacy of diet and nutraceutical management of migraines or other headache disorders. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martin PR. Behavioral management of migraine headache triggers: learning to cope with triggers. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2010;14:221–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rasmussen BK. Migraine and tension-type headache in a general population: precipitating factors, female hormones, sleep pattern and relation to lifestyle. Pain. 1993;53:65–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rasmussen BK, Olesen J. Migraine with aura and migraine without aura: an epidemiological study. Cephalalgia. 1992;12:221–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelman L. Migraine changes with age: IMPACT on migraine classification. Headache. 2006;46:1161–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zivadinov R, Willheim K, Sepic-Grahovac D, et al. Migraine and tension-type headache in Croatia: a population-based survey of precipitating factors. Cephalalgia. 2003;23:336–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cologno D, Torelli P, Manzoni GC. Possible predictive factors in the prognosis of migraine with aura. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:824–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andress-Rothrock D, King W, Rothrock J. An analysis of migraine triggers in a clinic-based population. Headache. 2010;50:1366–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Turner LC, Molgaard CA, Gardner CH, et al. Migraine trigger factor in a non-clinical Mexican-American population in San Diego County: implications for etiology. Cephalalgia. 1995;15:523–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Robbins L. Precipitating factors in migraine: a retrospective review of 494 patients. Headache. 1994;34:214–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deniz O, Aygul R, Kocak N, et al. Precipitating factors of migraine attacks in patients with migraine with and without aura. Pain Clin. 2004;16:451–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Constantinides V, Anagnostou E, Bougea A, et al. Migraine and tension-type headache triggers in a Greek population. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2015;73:665–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karli N, Zarifoglu M, Calisir N, et al. Comparison of pre-headache phases and trigger factors of migraine and episodic tension-type headache: do they share similar clinical pathophysiology? Cephalalgia. 2005;25:444–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chabriat H, Danchot J, Michel I, et al. Precipitating factors of headache. a prospective study in a national control-matched survey in migraineurs and nonmigraineurs. Headache. 1999;39:335–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mollaoğlu M. Trigger factors in migraine patients. J Health Psychol. 2013;18:984–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ierusalimschy R, Moreira Filho PF. Precipitating factors of migraine attacks in patients with migraine without aura. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2002;60:609–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spierings ELH, Ranke AH, Honkoop PC. Precipitating and aggravating factors of migraine versus tension-type headache. Headache. 2001;41:554–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chakravarty A, Mukherjee A, Roy D. Trigger factors in childhood migraine: a clinic-based study from eastern India. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:375–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yadav RK, Kalita J, Misra UK. A study of triggers of migraine in India. Pain Med. 2010;11:44–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bes A, Kunkel R, Lance J, et al. The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia. 2013;33:629–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibb C, Davies P, Glover V, Steiner T, Rose FC, Sandler M. Chocolate is a migraine-provoking agent. Cephalalgia. 1991;11:93–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bánk J, Márton S. Hungarian migraine epidemiology. Headache. 2000;40:164–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van den Bergh V, Amery WK, Waelkens J. Trigger factors in migraine: a study conducted by the Belgian Migraine Society. Headache. 1987;27:191–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ulrich V, Olesen J, Gervil M, et al. Possible risk factors and precipitants for migraine with aura in discordant twin-pairs: a population-based study. Cephalalgia. 2000;20:821–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Henry P, Auray JP, Gaudin AF, et al. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of migraine in France. Neurology. 2002;59:232–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peatfield RC, Glover V, Littlewood JT, et al. The prevalence of diet-induced migraine. Cephalalgia. 1984;4:179–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Russell MB, Rasmussen BK, Fenger K, et al. Migraine without aura and migraine with aura are distinct clinical entities: a study of four hundred and eighty-four male and female migraineurs from the general population. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Takeshima T, Ishizaki K, Fukuhara Y, et al. Population-based door-to-door survey of migraine in Japan: the Daisen study. Headache. 2004;44(1):8–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marcus DA, Scharff L, Turk D, Gourley LM. A double-blind provocative study of chocolate as a trigger of headache. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:855–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moffett AM, Swash M, Scott DF. Effect of chocolate in migraine: a double-blind study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1974;37:445–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Frary CD, Johnson RK, Wang MQ. Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:110–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fredholm B, Battig K, Holmen J, Nehlig A, Zvartau E. Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use. Pharmacol Rev. 1999;51:83–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guieu R, Devaux C, Henry H, et al. Adenosine and migraine. Can J Neurol Sci. 1998;25:55–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brown S, Waterer G. Migraine precipitated by adenosine. Med J Aust. 1995;162:389–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shapiro RE. Caffeine and headaches. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(4):311–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Derry C, Derry S, Moore R. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014: CD009281.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ona X, Osorio D, Cosp X. Drug therapy for treating post-dural puncture headache. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;7:CD007887.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Camann WR, Murray RS, Mushlin PS, Lambert DH. Effects of oral caffeine on postdural puncture headache. a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth Analg. 1990;70(2):181–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sechzer PH. Post-spinal anesthesia headache treated with caffeine. part II: intracranial vascular distention, a key factor. Curr Therapeut Res Clin Experiment. 1979;26(4):440–8.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zeger W, Younggren B, Smith L. Comparison of cosyntropin versus caffeine for post-dural puncture headaches: a randomized double-blind trial. World J Emergency Med. 2012;3(3):182–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Erol DD. The analgesic and antiemetic efficacy of gabapentin or ergotamine/caffeine for the treatment of postdural puncture headache. Adv Med Sci. 2011;56(1):25–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sen J, Sen B. Non-invasive management of post dural puncture headache—a comparison. Bangladesh J Med Sci. 2014;13(02):114–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yücel EC, Yücel A, Özyalçin S, Talu GK, Erdine S. Intravenous administration of caffeine sodium benzoate for postdural puncture headache. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1999;24:51–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Strelec S, Prylinski J, Sakert T, Royal M. The efficacy of multi-dose oral caffeine in prevention of post-dural puncture headache. Reg Anesth. 1994;19(2S):79.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Esmaoglu A, Akpinar H, Uqur F. Oral multidose caffeineparacetamol combination is not effective for the prophylaxis of postdural puncture headache. J Clin Anesth. 2005;17:58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liang J, Wang S. Hypnic headache: a review of clinical features, therapeutic options and outcomes. Cephalalgia. 2014;34:795–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Holle D, Naegel S, Krebs S, et al. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic options in hypnic headache. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:1435–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Donnet A, Lanteri-Minet M. A consecutive series of 22 cases of hypnic headache in France. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:928–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dodick D, Mosek A, Campbell J. The hypnic (“alarm clock”) headache syndrome. Cephalalgia. 1998;18:152–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pinto CA, Fragoso YD, Souza Carvalho D, et al. Hypnic headache syndrome: clinical aspects of eight patients in Brazil. Cephalalgia. 2002;22:824–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Johansson B, Georgiev V, Lindström K, Fredholm BB. A1 and A2A adenosine receptors and A1 mRNA in mouse brain: effect of long-term caffeine treatment. Brain Res. 1997;762:153–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Varani K, Portaluppi F, Merighi S, Ongini E, Belardinelli L, Borea PA. Caffeine alters A2A adenosine receptors and their function in human platelets. Circulation. 1999;99:2499–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Courturier EGM, Hering R, Steiner TJ. Weekend attacks in migraine patients: caused by caffeine withdrawal?. Cephalalgia. 1992; 12: 99– 100 22b.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sjaastad O, Bakketeig LS. Caffeine-withdrawal headache. the Vaga study of headache epidemiology. Cephalalgia. 2004;24:241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology. 2004;176:1–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fukui PT, Gonçalves TRT, Strabelli CG, et al. Trigger factors in migraine patients. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008;66:494–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hage K, Thoresen K, Stovne LJ, Zwart J. High dietary caffeine consumption is associated with a modest increase in headache prevalence: results from the Head-HUNT Study. J Headache Pain. 2009;10:153–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bigal M, Sheftell FD, Rapoport AM, et al. Chronic daily headache: identification of factors associated with induction and transformation. Headache. 2002;42:575–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Scher AI, Stewart WF, Lipton RB. Caffeine as a risk factor for chronic daily headache. Neurology. 2004;63:2022–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Patrick CH. Alcohol, culture, and society. New York: AMS Press; 1970. p. 26–7.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Low tyramine diet. Queensland government: dietitian/ nutritionists from the Nutrition Education Materials Online, “NEMO”, team. Published Nov. 2015. Updated Nov. 2015. Accessed June 20, 2016.
  66. 66.
    Rose F. Food and headache. Headache Quart-Curr Treatment Res. 1997;8:319–29.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Aamodt AH, Stovner LJ, Hagen K, et al. Headache prevalence related to smoking and alcohol use. Head-HUNT Stud Eur J Neurol. 2006;13:1233–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Schürks M, Kurth T, Knorn P, Pageler L, Diener HC. Predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption among patients with cluster headache. Cephalalgia. 2006;26(5):623–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Littlewood JT, Glover V, Davies PTG, et al. Red wine as a cause of migraine. Lancet. 1988;1:558–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Panconesi A. Alcohol and migraine: trigger factor, consumption, mechanisms. A review. J Headache Pain. 2008;9:71–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.••
    Rist P, Buring J, Kurth T. Dietary patterns according to headache and migraine status: a cross-sectional study. Cephalalgia. 2015;35:767–75. Cross sectional study within the Women’s Health Study evaluating avoidance of certain diets/foods in migraine and non-migraine headache patients.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smith I, Kellow AH, Mullen PE, Hanington E. Dietary migraine and tyramine metabolism. Nature (London). 1971;230:246–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hanington E. Preliminary report on tyramine headache. BMJ. 1967;2:550–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Peatfield RC. Relationships between food, wine, and beer-precipitated migrainous headaches. Headache. 1995;35:355–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jansen SC, van Dusseldorp M, Bottema KC, Dubois AEJ. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: a review. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003;91:233–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jarisch R, Wantke F. Wine and headache. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1996;110(1):7–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lassen LH, Christiansen I, Iversen HK, Jansen-Olesen I, Olesen J. The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on histamine induced headache and arterial dilatation in migraineurs. Cephalalgia. 2003;23:877–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sandler M, Youdim MB, Hanington E. A phenylethylamine oxidising defect in migraine. Nature. 1974;250:335–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marcus DA, Scharff L, Turk D, Gourley LM. A double-blind provocative study of chocolate as a trigger of headache. Cephalalgia. 1997;17:855–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Roberts HJ. Reactions attributed to aspartame containing products: 551 cases. J Appl Nutr. 1988;40:85–94.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schiffman SS, Buckley CE, Sampson HA. Aspartame and susceptibility to headache. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sathyapalan T, Thatcher NJ, Hammersley R, et al. Aspartame sensitivity? A double blind randomised crossover study: e0116212. PLoS One. 2015; 10.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leon AS, Hunninghake DB, Bell C, et al. Safety of long-term doses of aspartame. Arch Intern Med. 1989;1989:2318–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT, van Belle G, Daling JR, McKnight B. Aspartame ingestion and headaches: a randomized crossover trial. Neurology. 1994;44:1787–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Koehler SM, Glaros A. The effect of aspartame on migraine headache. Headache. 1988;28:10–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Newman LC, Lipton RB. Migraine MLT-down: an unusual presentation of migraine in patients with aspartame-triggered headaches. Case report. Headache. 2001;41:899–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Blumenthal HJ, Vance DA. Chewing gum headaches. Headache. 1997;37:665–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Scharff L, Turk DC, Marcus DA. Triggers of headache episodes and coping responses of headache diagnostic groups. Headache. 1995;35:397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Henderson W, Raskin N. Hot-dog headache: individual susceptibility to nitrite. Lancet. 1972;300:1162–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bryan N, Calvert J, Gundewar S, Lefer D. Dietary nitrite restores NO homeostasis and is card ioprotective in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;45:468–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Machha A, Schechter AN. Dietary nitrite and nitrate: a review of potential mechanisms of cardiovascular benefits. Eur J Nutr. 2011;50:293–303.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Olesen J. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in migraine, tension-type headache and cluster headache. Pharmacol Ther. 2008;120:157–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Neyal M, Geyik S, Çekmen M, Balat A, Neyal A. Elevated plasma total nitrite levels may be related to migraine attacks. Gaziantep Med J. 2014;20(4):299–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Barbanti P, Egeo G, Aurilia C, Fofi L, Della-Morte D. Drugs targeting nitric oxide synthase for migraine treatment. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014;23(8):1141–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kurihara K. Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami). Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:719S–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Obayashi Y, Nagamura Y. Does monosodium glutamate really cause headache?: a systematic review of human studies. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Tarasoff L, Kelly MF. Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review. Food Chem Toxicol. 1993;31(12):1019–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Prawirohardjono W, Dwiprahasto I, Astuti I, Hadiwandowo S, Kristin E, Muhammad M, et al. The administration to Indonesians of monosodium L-glutamate in Indonesian foods: an assessment of adverse reactions in a randomized double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. J Nutr. 2000;130(4S Suppl):1074S–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tanphaichitr V, Srianujata S, Pothisiri P, Sammasut R, Kulapongse S. Post prandial responses to Thai foods with and without added monosodium L-glutamate. Nutr Rep Int. 1983;28:783–92.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Merrett J, Peatfield RC, Rose FC, Merret TG. Food related antibodies in headache patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1983;46:738–42.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Moghadam MH, Ardalani H, Alehashemi A, Dehkordi MA, Meshkat M. Correlation between severity of migraine attacks and IgE level in peripheral blood. Lab Med. 2016;40:215–9.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rosario D, Pinto G. Role of gender and serum immunoglobulin E (IGE) levels on severity of migraine. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:57.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cakici M, Bilen S, Motor S, Ak F. Migraine and immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity. Noropsikiyatri Arsivi-Arch Neuropsychiatr. 2012;49:129–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Pradalier A, Weinman S, Launay JM, Baron JF, Dry J. Total IgE, specific IgE and prick-tests against foods in common migraine—a prospective study. Cephalalgia. 1983;3:231–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Atkinson W, Sheldon TA, Shaath N, Whorwell PJ. Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut. 2004;53(10):1459.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Arroyave Hernandez CM, Echevarria Pinto M, Hernandez Montiel HL. Food allergy mediated by IgG antibodies associated with migraine in adults. Rev Alerg Mex. 2007;54:162–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Alpay K, Ertaş M, Orhan EK, Üstay DK, Lieners C, Baykan B. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: a clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial. Cephalalgia. 2010;30:829–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Aydinlar EI, Dikmen PY, Tiftikci A, et al. IgG‐based elimination diet in migraine plus irritable bowel syndrome. Headache: J Head Face Pain. 2013;53:514–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mitchell N, Hewitt C, Jayakody S, et al. Randomised controlled trial of food elimination diet based on IgG antibodies for the prevention of migraine like headaches. Nutr J. 2011;10:85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pascual J, Oterino A. IgG-mediated allergy: a new mechanism for migraine attacks? Cephalalgia. 2010;30:777–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Chai NC, Scher AI, Moghekar A, et al. Obesity and headache: part I—a systematic review of the epidemiology of obesity and headache. Headache. 2014;54:219–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vo M, Ainalem A, Qiu C, Peterlin BL, Aurora SK, Williams MA. Body mass index and adult weight gain among reproductive age women with migraine. Headache. 2011;51:559–69.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Peterlin BL, Rosso AL, Rapoport AM, Scher AI. Obesity and migraine: the effect of age, gender and adipose tissue distribution. Headache. 2010;50:52–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Novack V, Fuchs L, Lantsberg L, et al. Changes in headache frequency in premenopausal obese women with migraine after bariatric surgery: a case series. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1336–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Bond DS, Vithiananthan S, Nash JM, Thomas JG, Wing RR. Improvement of migraine headaches in severely obese patients after bariatric surgery. Neurology. 2011;76:1135–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mosek A, Korczyn AD. Yom Kippur headache. Neurology. 1995;45:1953–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Awada A, al Jumah M. The first-of-Ramadan headache. Headache. 1999;39:490–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Abu-Salameh I, Plakht Y, Ifergane G. Migraine exacerbation during Ramadan fasting. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:513–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Blau JN. Water deprivation: a new migraine precipitant. Headache. 2005;45:757–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Spigt MG, Kuijper EC, Schayck CP, et al. Increasing the daily water intake for the prophylactic treatment of headache: a pilot trial. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12:715–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Amer M, Woodward M, Appel LJ. Effects of dietary sodium and the DASH diet on the occurrence of headaches: results from randomised multicentre DASH-Sodium clinical trial. BMJ Open. 2014;4:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ferrara L, Pacioni D, Di Fronzo V, Russo BF, Speranza E, Carlino V, et al. Low-lipid diet reduces frequency and severity of acute migraine attacks. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25(4):370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bic Z, Blix GG, Hopp HP, et al. The influence of a low-fat diet on incidence and severity of migraine headache. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8:623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schnabel TG. An experience with a ketogenic dietary in migraine. Ann Intern Med. 1928;2:341–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Maggioni F, Margoni M, Zanchin G. Ketogenic diet in migraine treatment: a brief but ancient history. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:1150–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Di Lorenzo C, Coppola G, Sirianni G, et al. Migraine improvement during short lasting ketogenesis: a proof‐of‐concept study. Eur J Neurol. 2015;22:170–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kelman L. The triggers or precipitants of the acute migraine attack. Cephalagia. 2007;27:394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of NeurologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations