Poor Oral Health as a Chronic, Potentially Modifiable Dementia Risk Factor: Review of the Literature

  • James M. Noble
  • Nikolaos Scarmeas
  • Panos N. Papapanou
Dementia (KS Marder, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Dementia

Abstract

Poor oral health, including caries, tooth loss, and periodontitis, is ubiquitous worldwide, and is potentially treatable and preventable. Like adverse oral health conditions, Alzheimer disease and related disorders are also very common among aging populations. Established risk factors for Alzheimer disease include cerebrovascular disease and its vascular risk factors, many of which share associations with evidence of systemic inflammation also identified in periodontitis and other poor oral health states. In this review, we present epidemiologic evidence of links between poor oral health and both prevalent and incident cognitive impairment, and review plausible mechanisms linking these conditions, including evidence from compelling animal models. Considering that a large etiologic fraction of dementia remains unexplained, these studies argue for further multidisciplinary research between oral health conditions, including translational, epidemiologic, and possibly clinical treatment studies.

Keywords

Periodontitis Periodontal disease Tooth loss Oral health Caries Dentures Alzheimer disease Cerebrovascular disease Vascular dementia Dementia Epidemiology 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Noble
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Scarmeas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Panos N. Papapanou
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging BrainColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Social Medicine, Psychiatry and Neurology, Medical SchoolNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Division of Periodontics, School of Dental MedicineColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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