Purpose of Review
In this review, we summarize recent outbreaks attributed to hospital sinks and examine design features and behaviors that contributed to these outbreaks. The effectiveness of various risk mitigation strategies is presented. Finally, we examine investigational strategies targeted at reducing the risk of sink-related infections.
Outbreaks of hospital sink-related infections involve a diverse spectrum of microorganisms. They can be attributed to defects in sink design and hospital wastewater systems that promote the formation and dispersion of biofilm, as well as healthcare practitioner and patient behaviors. Risk mitigation strategies are often bundled; while they may reduce clinical cases, sink colonization may persist. Novel approaches targeting biofilms show promise but require more investigation.
Emphasis should be placed on optimizing best practices in sink design and placement to prevent infections. Hospitals should consider developing a rational surveillance and prevention strategy based on the current design and state of their sinks.
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We would like to thank Infection Prevention and Control construction leads, Jessica Fullerton and Karl Zebarth, for the details they provided regarding the existing national facility engineering standards. We would also like to thank Ani Orchanian-Cheff for her assistance in performing the literature search and Bryan Graham Huck for his sink illustration.
Conflict of Interest
We declare that we have no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript. Full disclosures available upon request.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Healthcare Associated Infections
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Parkes, L.O., Hota, S.S. Sink-Related Outbreaks and Mitigation Strategies in Healthcare Facilities. Curr Infect Dis Rep 20, 42 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-018-0648-3
- Hand hygiene
- Hospital-associated infections
- Infection control
- Multidrug-resistant organisms