Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Beyond Clostridium difficile


Purpose of Review

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as standard of care in the treatment of antibiotic refractory Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). This review examines the current evidence that exists to support the use of FMT in the treatment of human disease beyond C. difficile infection.

Recent Findings

Beneficial effects of FMT have been described in case series or small prospective trials on a wide spectrum of conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, and neuropsychiatric conditions, and in limiting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Each of these proposed indications for FMT is associated with an underlying dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal microbiota and generally a clinical response is linked with a restoration of the gut microbiota.


The potential of fecal microbial transplantation to alter disease course shows promise but further large-scale studies are necessary to understand limitations as well as how best to utilize this therapy.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karen Madsen.

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Conflict of Interest

Braden Millan, Michael Laffin, and Karen Madsen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Intra-abdominal Infections, Hepatitis, and Gastroenteritis

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Millan, B., Laffin, M. & Madsen, K. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Beyond Clostridium difficile . Curr Infect Dis Rep 19, 31 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-017-0586-5

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  • Fecal microbiota transplantation
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Microbiota