Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnancy

  • T. J. Aguin
  • J. D. SobelEmail author
Genitourinary Infections (J Sobel, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Genitourinary Infections


Prevalence studies indicate that Candida species colonize the vagina in at least 20 % of all women, rising to 30 % in pregnancy. Although, some studies concluded that pregnant women were more likely to have symptomatic vaginal infections caused by Candida, yet other studies found a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection only during pregnancy. Most episodes of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) occur during the second and third trimesters. The increased risk of VVC in pregnancy is likely sustained by pregnancy-related factors, such as immunologic alterations, increased estrogen levels, and increased vaginal glycogen production. Although evidence is incomplete, there is some emerging data which suggests that candidiasis in pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, chorioamnionitis, and congenital cutaneous candidiasis. In contrast to nonpregnant women, there are no formal studies, evaluating the use of long-term suppressive maintenance oral azoles in the treatment of recurrent VVC (RVVC) in pregnancy. Most clinicians do not offer suppressive therapy in pregnancy and prefer to treat individual symptomatic episodes only utilizing a topical imidazole vaginally for 7 days to minimize systemic exposure to medications.


Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Recurrent Pregnancy 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Tina Aguin and Jack Dr Sobel have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Division Infectious DiseasesWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Harper HospitalDetroitUSA

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