Antimicrobial Stewardship—Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes: The Role of Measurement


Overuse and misuse of antibiotics have contributed to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance and serious side effects including Clostridium difficile infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 2 million people are infected by multidrug-resistant organisms every year. They propose that promoting antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) is an essential component to combat this growing threat. One of the major barriers in implementing effective ASP is the availability of reliable measures which reflect intervention effectiveness. Measuring ASP can be divided into four categories: antimicrobial consumption, process measures, outcome measures, and financial. This article reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the current measures.

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Conflict of Interest

Edward Septimus was a board member on IDSA. Septimus is employed at HCA. Septimus received grants from AHRQ, CDC, and NIH. Septimus was a speaker for Cubist.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.

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Correspondence to Ed Septimus.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Healthcare Associated Infections

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Septimus, E. Antimicrobial Stewardship—Qualitative and Quantitative Outcomes: The Role of Measurement. Curr Infect Dis Rep 16, 433 (2014).

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  • Antimicrobial stewardship
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Antimicrobial stewardship measures