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Blood Pressure Reduction in Hypertensive Acute Heart Failure

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To review the key clinical and research questions regarding blood pressure (BP) reduction with vasodilators in the early management of hypertensive acute heart failure (H-AHF).

Recent Findings

Despite numerous AHF vasodilator clinical trials in the past two decades, virtually none has studied a population where vasoconstriction is the predominant physiology, and with the agents and doses most commonly used in contemporary practice. AHF patients are remarkably heterogenous by vascular tone, and this heterogeneity is not always discernible through BP or clinical exam. Emerging data suggest that diastolic BP may be a stronger correlate of vascular tone in AHF than systolic BP, despite the latter historically serving as a key inclusion criterion for vasodilator clinical trials.

Summary

Existing data are limited. A clinical trial that evaluates vasodilators in a manner of use consistent with contemporary practice, specifically within the subpopulation of patients with true H-AHF, is greatly needed. Until then, observational data supports long-standing vasodilators such as nitroglycerin, administered by IV bolus, and with goal reduction of SBP ≤25% as a safe first-line approach for patients with severe H-AHF presentations.

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Correspondence to Nicholas Harrison.

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Dr. Pang reports grants from AHRQ and AHA, outside the submitted work. Dr. Collins reports grants from NIH, PCORI, Astra Zeneca, Beckman Colter, personal fees from Boeringer Ingelheim, Ortho Clinical, Bristol Myers Squibb, outside the submitted work. Dr. Levy reports grants and personal fees from Novartis, grants from Edwards Lifescience, and grants and personal fees from BMS, during the conduct of the study. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

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Harrison, N., Pang, P., Collins, S. et al. Blood Pressure Reduction in Hypertensive Acute Heart Failure. Curr Hypertens Rep 23, 11 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-021-01127-8

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Keywords

  • Hypertensive acute heart failure
  • Hypertensive emergency
  • Vasodilator
  • Emergency department
  • Vasoconstriction
  • Hemodynamics
  • Clinical trial design