Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Syndrome
Purpose of Review
This review will summarize recent developments in the research on the mineralocorticoid receptor and its impact on obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome.
Aldosterone excess plays an important role in the association between resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide and is especially common among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, resistant hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, suggesting probable mechanistic links between these three conditions. Mineralocorticoid receptor expression is increased in obese individuals, which may contribute to the common association between obesity and hyperaldosteronism. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockers reduce the severity of obstructive sleep apnea among resistant hypertension patients.
A large body of literature demonstrates a strong association between obesity, hyperaldosteronism, resistant hypertension, and sleep apnea, including specific benefit of treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor blockers for these separate disorders.
KeywordsObstructive sleep apnea Resistant hypertension Obesity Aldosterone Metabolic syndrome Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • of importance •• of major importance
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