Insulin resistance (IR) is present in pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, inflammation, cardiac disease, and dyslipidemias. Population studies show that IR is multifactorial and has genetic components, such as defects in the insulin-signaling pathway (as serine phosphorylation on insulin substrate or decreased activation of signaling molecules) and RAS/MAPK-dependent pathways. IR is connected to mitochondrial dysfunction, overproduction of oxidants, accumulation of fat, and an over-activation of the renin-angiotensin system linked to the NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (endothelial and inducible), is also associated with IR when both impaired release and reduced bioavailability of all which lead to inflammation and hypertension. However, increased NO may promote vasculoprotection. Moreover, reduced NO release induces heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70) expression in IR and diabetes, mediating beneficial effects against oxidative stress injury, inflammation and apoptosis. HSP70 may be used as biomarker of the chronicity of diabetes. Hsp72 (inducible protein) is linked to vascular complications with a high-fat diet by blocking inflammation signaling (cytoprotective and anti-cytotoxicity intracellular role). Elucidating the IR signaling pathways and the roles of NO and HSPs is relevant to the application of new treatments, such as heat shock and thermal therapy, nitrosylated drugs, chemical chaperones or exercise training.
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Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
The animal experiments described herein were not performed by any of the authors, signifying that no animals were harmed in the course of preparing this manuscript.
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by grants from the Research and Technology Council of Cuyo University (SECyT), Mendoza, Argentina, and from the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) PIP 2010–2012, both of which were awarded to Walter Manucha. Grant no. PICT 2012–0234, BID 2777 OC/AR.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Hypertension and Obesity
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Molina, M.N., Ferder, L. & Manucha, W. Emerging Role of Nitric Oxide and Heat Shock Proteins in Insulin Resistance. Curr Hypertens Rep 18, 1 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-015-0615-4
- Insulin resistance
- Nitric oxide
- Heat shock protein 70
- Type-2 diabetes mellitus
- Oxidative stress
- Vitamin D