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Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 105–112 | Cite as

The Impact of ACA and Medicaid Expansion on Progress Toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 Goals

  • Blythe AdamsonEmail author
  • Lauren Lipira
  • Aaron B. Katz
The Science of Prevention (JD Stekler and JM Baeten, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on The Science of Prevention

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 and subsequent Medicaid expansion has influenced access to HIV treatment and care in the USA. This review aims to evaluate whether the implementation of these policies has impacted progress toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals.

Recent Findings

Preliminary evidence has emerged suggesting that the ACA and Medicaid expansion has increased the likelihood of HIV testing and diagnosis, reduced the number of people unaware of HIV infection, and increased the number of people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are virally suppressed.

Summary

While the ACA is associated with some progress toward 90-90-90 goals, more years of data after policy implementation are needed for robust analysis. Methods including difference-in-differences, instrumental variables, and propensity scores are recommended to minimize bias from unmeasured confounders and make causal inference about non-random Medicaid expansion among states.

Keywords

Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion HIV 90-90-90 Viral suppression Policy analysis 

Abbreviations

ACA

Affordable Care Act

ADAP

AIDS Drug Assistance Program

ART

antiretroviral therapy

BRFSS

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

DID

difference-in-differences analysis

FPL

Federal Poverty Level

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

MSM

men who have sex with men

PLWH

people living with HIV

RWHAP

Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

UNAIDS

Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS

US

United States

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Anirban Basu for the input on policy analysis methods for causal inference using observational data. Lisa McLoughlin provided technical editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

11904_2019_429_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (1.28 mb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Blythe Adamson
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lauren Lipira
    • 3
  • Aaron B. Katz
    • 3
  1. 1.The Comparative Health Outcomes, Policy, and Economics (CHOICE) InstituteUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Vaccine and Infectious Diseases DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health ServicesUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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