Current HIV/AIDS Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 41–46 | Cite as

Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in HIV-Infected Individuals

  • Laura Quilter
  • Shireesha Dhanireddy
  • Jeanne Marrazzo
Co-infections and Comorbidity (S Naggie, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Co-infections and Comorbidity


Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important part of the care of the HIV-infected individual. STIs have been associated with increased risk of transmission and acquisition of HIV. Among HIV-infected persons, treatment failures and high recurrence rates of some STIs are more common. Despite the recognized importance of prevention and discussion of sexual health, rates of screening for STIs are suboptimal. Moreover, rates of STIs such as syphilis continue to increase particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). This review focuses on the most common STIs seen among HIV-infected individuals and recommendations for screening and prevention.


Sexually transmitted diseases HIV Gonorrhea Chlamydia Syphilis Hepatitis C 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Laura Quilter, Shireesha Dhanireddy, and Jeanne Marrazzo declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Blair JM, McNaghten AD, Frazier EL, Skarbinski J, Huang P, Heffelfinger JD. Clinical and behavioral characteristics of adults receiving medical care for HIV infection—medical monitoring project, United States. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007;60:1–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kalichman SC, Pellowski J, Turner C. Prevalence of sexually transmitted co-infections in people living with HIV/AIDS: systematic review with implications for using HIV treatments for prevention. Sex Transm Infect. 87:183–90.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Menza TW, Jameson DR, Hughes JP, Colfax GN, Shoptaw S, Golden MR. Contingency management to reduce methamphetamine use and sexual risk among men who have sex with men: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 10:774.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pathela P, Braunstein SL, Blank S, Schillinger JA. HIV incidence among men with and those without sexually transmitted rectal infections: estimates from matching against an HIV case registry. Clin Infect Dis. 57:1203–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jin F, Prestage GP, Templeton DJ, et al. The impact of HIV seroadaptive behaviors on sexually transmissible infections in HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Sex Transm Dis. 39:191–4.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance 2009. US Department of Health and Human Services 2010.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medical Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Available at
  8. 8.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Incorporating HIV prevention into the medical care of persons living with HIV. Recommendations of CDC, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52:1–24.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aberg JA, Gallant JE, Ghanem KG, Emmanuel P, Zingman BS, Horberg MA, Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV. Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;58:1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Workowski KA, Bolan GA. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carter Jr JW, Hart-Cooper GD, Butler MO, Workowski KA, Hoover KW. Provider barriers prevent recommended sexually transmitted disease screening of HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 41:137–42.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barbee LA, Dhanireddy S, Tat S, Radford A, Marrazzo JM. Barriers to Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing of HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Engaged in HIV Primary Care. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42: 590–4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patton ME, Su JR, Nelson R, Weinstock H. Primary and secondary syphilis—United States, 2005-2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:402–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sena AC, White BL, Sparling PF. Novel Treponema pallidum serologic tests: a paradigm shift in syphilis screening for the 21st century. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:700–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park IU, Chow JM, Bolan G, Stanley M, Shieh J, Schapiro JM. Screening for syphilis with the treponemal immunoassay: analysis of discordant serology results and implications for clinical management. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1297–304.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Holmberg SD, Spradling PR, Moorman AC, Denniston MM. Hepatitis C in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1859–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wasley A, Grytdal S, Gallagher K. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis—United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57:1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kirk GD, Mehta SH, Astemborski J, et al. HIV, age, and the severity of hepatitis C virus-related liver disease: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158:658–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    George SL, Gebhardt J, Klinzman D, et al. Hepatitis C virus viremia in HIV-infected individuals with negative HCV antibody tests. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;31:154–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moyer VA, Screening for hepatitis C virus infection in adults: U.S. Preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:349–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ingiliz P, Martin TC, Rodger A, et al. HCV reinfection and spontaneous clearance rates in HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Western Europe. J Hepatol. 2016.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meites E, Llata E, Braxton J, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis in selected U.S. sexually transmitted disease clinics: testing, screening, and prevalence. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:865–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Muzny CA, Rivers CA, Austin EL, Schwebke JR. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women receiving gynaecological care at an Alabama HIV clinic. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:514–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M, et al. The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1017–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:11–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Francis SC, Kent CK, Klausner JD, et al. Prevalence of rectal Trichomonas vaginalis and mycoplasma genitalium in male patients at the San Francisco STD clinic, 2005-2006. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:797–800.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sena AC, Miller WC, Hobbs MM, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in male sexual partners: implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:13–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Allen VG, Mitterni L, Seah C, et al. Neisseria gonorrhoeae treatment failure and susceptibility to cefixime in Toronto, Canada. JAMA. 2013;309:163–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patton ME, Kidd S, Llata E, et al. Extragenital gonorrhea and chlamydia testing and infection among men who have sex with men—STD surveillance network, United States, 2010-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1564–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Masur H, Brooks JT, Benson CA, Holmes KK, Pau AK, Kaplan JE. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58:1308–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Launay O, van der Vliet D, Rosenberg AR, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 4 intramuscular double doses and 4 intradermal low doses vs standard hepatitis B vaccine regimen in adults with HIV-1: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305:1432–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heuft MM, Houba SM, van den Berk GEL, et al. Protective effect of hepatitis B virus-active antiretroviral therapy against primary hepatitis B virus infection. AIDS. 2014;28(7):999–1005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shilaih M, Marzel A, Scherrer AU, et al. Dually active HIV/HBV antiretrovirals as protection against incident hepatitis B infections: potential for prophylaxis. J Infect Dis. 2016;214(4):599–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Petrosky E, Bocchini JA, Hariri S, et al. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64(11):300–4.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, et al. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:427–39.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nagot N, Ouedraogo A, Foulongne V, et al. Reduction of HIV-1 RNA levels with therapy to suppress herpes simplex virus. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:790–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, et al. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375:824–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, et al. Antiretroviral therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. N Eng J Med. 2016;375:830–9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jia Z, Mao Y, Zhang F, et al. Antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples in China (2003-11): a national observational cohort study. Lancet. 2013;382:1195–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, et al. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet. 2010;375:2092–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jean K, Gabillard D, Moh R, et al. Effect of early antiretroviral thearpy on sexual behaviors and HIV-1 transmission risk among adults with diverse heterosexual partnership statuses in Cote d'Ivoire. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:431–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smith MK, Westreich D, Liu H, et al. Treatment to prevent HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples in Henan, China 2006-2012. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61:111–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, et al. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2587–99.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:399–410.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Quilter
    • 1
  • Shireesha Dhanireddy
    • 1
  • Jeanne Marrazzo
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of Washington Medical CenterSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of MedicineBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations