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Challenges in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Management in South America


Purpose of Review

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) management in developing countries has improved in the last years, but the availability of therapeutic resources, monitoring, reimbursement, and financial issues may be a challenge and interfere with the best practices and results of CML treatment. This review points out the main challenges in CML management in South America.

Recent Findings.

In this review, we describe the access to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monitoring in different countries of South America. We also address the ongoing discontinuation trials, the progress, and limitations of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the last years.


There are still many challenges for achieving the best outcomes for CML patients in South America. The continuous efforts to provide continuous education, access to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and monitoring, providing reference centers for CML management and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may improve patients’ outcomes.

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We would like to acknowledge Sebastian Galeano in name of LABMT and Cynthia Correa da Silva (data manager at LABMT).

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Correspondence to Katia B. Pagnano.

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Conflicts of Interest

KBP reports Advisory Boards from Novartis, Abbvie, and lectures fees from EMS, Novartis, Pintpharma, Abbvie; AIV reports lecture fees from Novartis and Bristol Myers Squibb; VA reports participation in AB and conferences for Janssen, Abbott, Abbvie, Novartis, Bristol, Amgen. Funding for investigation from Janssen, Takeda, Abbvie, Janssen, Novartis. VF and IB report no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent This article is a review and contains no studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Chronic Myeloid Leukemias

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Pagnano, K.B., Varela, A.I., Pavlovsky, C. et al. Challenges in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Management in South America. Curr Hematol Malig Rep 16, 440–447 (2021).

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  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Monitoring
  • Management
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Treatment-free remission