Diagnostic Advances in Multiple Myeloma
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There have been several advances in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) in recent years. Serum free light chains have improved the ability to diagnose light chain MM; however, there are still difficulties in the serologic diagnosis of MM in some cases, particularly IgA MM. A novel heavy/light chain assay is able to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in these cases. Free light chains may also improve the diagnosis of extramedullary disease in difficult cases such as disease involving the central nervous system, pleura, or ascites. Advances in imaging such as whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have improved sensitivity in identifying lytic bone lesions, which would enable earlier treatment, and monitoring of osseous disease particularly in non- or oligosecretory disease. New techniques such as fused PET/MRI may further enhance the diagnosis of both bone lesions and extramedullary disease.
KeywordsMultiple myeloma Diagnosis HevyLite Free light chains Extramedullary disease Whole body low-dose CT
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Conflict of Interest
Kevin Barley and Ajai Chari each declare no potential conflicts of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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