Current Heart Failure Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 106–115 | Cite as

Fill in the Gaps of Secondary Mitral Regurgitation: a Continuum Challenge From Pathophysiology to Prognosis

  • Riccardo M. Inciardi
  • Andrea RossiEmail author
  • Giovanni Benfari
  • Mariantonietta Cicoira
Pathophysiology of Myocardia Failure (I. Anand and M. Patarroyo Aponte A., Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pathophysiology of Myocardial Failure


Purpose of Review

Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most frequent valvular heart diseases encountered in clinical practice. In contrast to primary MR, less is still known about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prognosis of secondary MR. The purpose of this report is to provide a review, upon the last knowledge reported in the literature, on the role and management of secondary MR in clinical practice.

Recent Findings

Recent data highlight secondary MR not as a single pathological entity but as a wide spectrum of interconnected conditions which portend poor outcome. Although the role of secondary MR on clinical outcome is debated, recent available data suggest an independent association of MR with prognosis. Nevertheless, available treatment did not show a clear benefit after MR correction.


Further studies are needed to better categorize and assess secondary MR beyond schematic classification. A management approach should be tailored upon each clinical context of presentation.


Secondary mitral regurgitation LV function LV remodeling Echocardiography Pathophysiology 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Riccardo M. Inciardi, Andrea Rossi, Giovanni Benfari, and Mariantonietta Cicoira declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo M. Inciardi
    • 1
  • Andrea Rossi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giovanni Benfari
    • 1
  • Mariantonietta Cicoira
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly

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