Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass, is being increasingly recognized to have a deleterious effect on outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. Factors related to diet and the inflammatory nature of chronic liver disease contribute to the occurrence of sarcopenia in these patients. Sarcopenia adversely influences quality of life, performance, morbidity, success of transplantation, and even mortality. Specific deficiencies in macronutrients (protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and micronutrients (vitamins C, D, and E, carotenoids, and selenium) have been linked to sarcopenia. Lessons learned from nutritional therapy in geriatric patient populations may provide strategies to manage sarcopenia in patients with liver disease. Combining diet modification and nutrient supplementation with an organized program of exercise may help ameliorate or even reverse the effects of sarcopenia on an already complex disease process.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the topical collection on Nutrition and Obesity
An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-016-0533-x.
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Kappus, M.R., Mendoza, M.S., Nguyen, D. et al. Sarcopenia in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: Can It Be Altered by Diet and Exercise?. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 18, 43 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11894-016-0516-y
- Muscle wasting
- Liver disease
- Portal hypertension
- Protein malnutrition