Intestine and Multivisceral Transplantation: Current Status and Future Directions

  • Chandrashekhar A. Kubal
  • Richard S. Mangus
  • A. Joseph Tector
Small Intestine (J Sellin, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Small Intestine


Intestinal failure and associated parenteral nutrition-induced liver failure cause significant morbidity, mortality, and health care burden. Intestine transplantation is now considered to be the standard of care in patients with intestinal failure who fail intestinal rehabilitation. Intestinal failure-associated liver disease is an important sequela of intestinal failure, caused by parenteral lipids, requiring simultaneous liver-intestine transplant. Lipid minimization and, in recent years, the emergence of fish oil-based lipid emulsions have been shown to reverse parenteral nutrition-associated hyperbilirubinemia, but not fibrosis. Significant progress in surgical techniques and immunosuppression has led to improved outcomes after intestine transplantation. Intestine in varying combination with liver, stomach, and pancreas, also referred to as multivisceral transplantation, is performed for patients with intestinal failure along with liver disease, surgical abdominal catastrophes, neuroendocrine and slow-growing tumors, and complete portomesenteric thrombosis with cirrhosis of the liver. Although acute and chronic rejection are major problems, long-term survivors have excellent quality of life and remain free of parenteral nutrition.


Intestinal failure Intestine transplantation Liver failure Multivisceral transplantation Parenteral nutrition Acute rejection Chronic rejection Immunosuppression 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Chandrashekhar A. Kubal, Richard S. Mangus, and A. Joseph Tector declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

Human studies were done by the authors (but no animal studies). This article does not contain any studies with animal subjects performed by any of the authors. With regard to the authors’ research cited in this paper, all procedures were followed in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandrashekhar A. Kubal
    • 1
  • Richard S. Mangus
    • 1
  • A. Joseph Tector
    • 1
  1. 1.Transplant Division, Department of SurgeryIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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