Current Diabetes Reports

, 18:96 | Cite as

Optimal Obstetric Management for Women with Diabetes: the Benefits and Costs of Fetal Surveillance

  • Ukachi N. EmeruwaEmail author
  • Chloe Zera
Diabetes and Pregnancy (M-F Hivert and CE Powe, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Diabetes and Pregnancy


Purpose of Review

To elaborate on the risks and benefits associated with antenatal fetal surveillance for stillbirth prevention in women with diabetes.

Recent Findings

Women with pregestational diabetes have a 3- to 5-fold increased odds of stillbirth compared to women without diabetes. The stillbirth risk in women with gestational diabetes (GDM) is more controversial; while recent data suggest the odds for stillbirth are approximately 50% higher in women with GDM at term (37 weeks and beyond) than in those without GDM, it is unclear if this risk is seen in women with optimal glycemic control. Current professional society guidelines are broad with respect to fetal testing strategies and delivery timing in women with diabetes.


The data supporting strategies to reduce the risk of stillbirth in women with diabetes are limited. Antepartum fetal surveillance should be performed to reduce stillbirth rates; however, the optimal test, frequency of testing, and delivery timing are not yet clear. Future studies of obstetric management for women with diabetes should consider not just individual but also system level costs and benefits associated with antenatal surveillance.


Pregestational diabetes Gestational diabetes Cost-benefit Fetal surveillance Stillbirth 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ukachi N. Emeruwa and Chloe Zera declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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