Current Diabetes Reports

, 17:5 | Cite as

Metformin: New Preparations and Nonglycemic Benefits

  • Yoshihito Fujita
  • Nobuya Inagaki
Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (HE Lebovitz and G Bahtiyar, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes


Metformin has been widely used for over 5 decades. New preparations have been developed for possible enhancement of efficiency, tolerability, and pleiotropic nonglycemic effects. Extended-release metformin has contributed to adherence and improved gastrointestinal tolerability. Delayed-release metformin acts in the lower gastrointestinal tract and exerts glucose-lowering effects at lower plasma metformin levels, which might suggest use of this biguanide in patients with chronic kidney disease. Metformin is also known to have numerous nonglycemic effects. Results of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study indicate improvements in cardiovascular outcome and reduced total mortality independent of glycemic control. Anticancer effects of metformin have been discussed and many clinical trials are on-going. Metformin is noted for its beneficial effects on lifespan extension and on disorders due to increased insulin resistance. Further investigations, including randomized control trials in nondiabetic individuals, are required to demonstrate the nonglycemic effects of metformin.


Metformin Metformin XR Metformin DR Nonglycemic effect Anticancer effect Longevity 



This work was supported by Scientific Research Grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Nobuya Inagaki received research grants from Astellas Pharma Inc., Taisho Toyama Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., Daiichi Sankyo Company, Ltd., MSD, Sanofi, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co., Ltd., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Shiratori Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., JT, Pfizer, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd., Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Japan Diabetes Foundation. Yoshihito Fujita declares no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and NutritionGraduate School of Medicine, Kyoto UniversitySakyo-kuJapan

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