Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 346–354 | Cite as

Current Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema

  • Jie Ding
  • Tien Yin WongEmail author
Microvascular Complications—Retinopathy (JK Sun, Section Editor)


With increasing global prevalence of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is set to be the principle cause of vision impairment in many countries. DR affects a third of people with diabetes and the prevalence increases with duration of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypertension—the major risk factors for the onset and progression of DR. There are now increasing data on the epidemiology of diabetic macular edema (DME), an advanced complication of DR, with studies suggesting DME may affect up to 7 % of people with diabetes. The risk factors for DME are largely similar to DR, but dyslipidemia appears to play a more significant role. Early detection of DR and DME through screening programs and appropriate referral for therapy is important to preserve vision in individuals with diabetes. Future research is necessary to better understand the potential role of other risk factors such as apolipoproteins and genetic predisposition to shape public health programs.


Epidemiology Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic macular edema Risk factors 



No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Centre for Quantitative MedicineDuke-NUS Graduate Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyYong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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