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Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance

Abstract

Several reviews recently explored how the gut microbiota was able to control host energy metabolism, and thereby the development of adiposity. In this review, we focused on the state of the art that supports a link between the gut microbiota composition and activity, and the management of glycemia associated with overweight and diabetes. Several microbial-derived compounds are related to disturbances of glucose homeostasis including the gram-negative–derived lipopolysaccharides. Some nutrients with prebiotic properties, which escape the digestion in the upper part of the gut, modify the composition of the gut microbiota in favor of bacteria that could play a beneficial role on glucose homeostasis, namely by modulating the endocrine function of the gut, and by reinforcing the gut barrier. Adequate intervention studies in diabetic patients are required to assess the relevance of those experimental data for human health.

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Disclosure

Conflicts of interest: N.M. Delzenne: is a recipient of subsides from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS/FRSM) and from the “fonds spéciaux de recherche,” UCL (Université catholique de Louvain); P.D. Cani: is research associate from the FRS-FNRS (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, Belgique), and is a recipient of subsides from the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS/FRSM) and from the “fonds spéciaux de recherche,” UCL (Université catholique de Louvain).

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Correspondence to Nathalie M. Delzenne.

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Delzenne, N.M., Cani, P.D. Gut Microbiota and the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance. Curr Diab Rep 11, 154–159 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-011-0191-1

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Keywords

  • Gut microbiota
  • Diabetes
  • Prebiotics
  • Inflammation
  • Gut
  • Lipopolysaccharides