Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular (CV) disease, and CV-related premature death. More than 8 million people in the United States have CKD; therefore, preventive strategies should be directed at identifying risk factors for this condition. There is growing evidence implicating the cardiometabolic syndrome, a clustering of CV risk factors that include obesity, insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, dysglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Factors mediating this relationship include increased glomerular filtration, increased vascular permeability, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and inappropriate secretion of growth factors. The consequences are microalbuminuria, a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, renal vascular proliferation, extracellular matrix expansion, and CKD. Prevention of CKD should be directed at controlling all components of the cardiometabolic syndrome, with the ultimate goal of reducing the burden imposed by ESRD.
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Lastra, G., Manrique, C., McFarlane, S.I. et al. Cardiometabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. Curr Diab Rep 6, 207–212 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-006-0036-5
- Insulin Resistance
- Chronic Kidney Disease
- Metabolic Syndrome
- Diabetic Nephropathy
- Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress