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Gender Disparities in Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction

  • Matthew Liakos
  • Puja B. ParikhEmail author
Ischemic Heart Disease (D Mukherjee, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Ischemic Heart Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review provides updates in gender disparities in the symptom profile, risk factors, quality and timeliness of guideline-based medical care, and clinical outcomes, including mortality, bleeding, and vascular complications, in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Recent Findings

While AMI continues to be a leading cause of mortality in both men and women, significant gender differences exist in presentation, management, and outcomes. Women with AMI are older, suffer atypical symptoms, and more often present with HF and cardiogenic shock. Delays in medical care and hence longer ischemic times exist in women, partly due to decreased awareness and lack of symptom recognition. Women continue to be less likely to receive guideline-based pharmacological therapies and revascularization than men with AMI. While women suffer from significantly higher risk-adjusted rates of bleeding, vascular complications, and short-term mortality, the risk-adjusted rates of long-term mortality remain similar between men and women. Further investigations and efforts are needed to aggressively modify risk factors, reduce delays in care, and address the higher rates of adverse events seen in women with AMI.

Summary

Significant sex disparities are prevalent in presentation, management, and outcomes of adults with AMI. Further investigations and efforts are needed to aggressively modify risk factors, reduce delays in care, and address the higher rates of adverse events seen in women with AMI.

Keywords

Myocardial infarction Gender Mortality 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Matthew Liakos and Puja B. Parikh declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of MedicineState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Health Sciences Center T16-080Stony Brook University Medical CenterStony BrookUSA

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