What Is New in Heart Failure Management in 2017? Update on ACC/AHA Heart Failure Guidelines
Purpose of Review
The goal of this paper is to provide a summary of the new recommendations in the most recent 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. The intent is to provide the background and the supporting evidence for the recommendations and to provide practical guidance for management strategies in treatment of heart failure patients.
In the 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of HF guidelines, important additions include new information on biomarkers, specifically on the topics of the diagnostic, prognostic role of natriuretic peptides in heart failure, and the role of natriuretic peptides in screening in patients high risk for HF and prevention of HF. There are important recommendations for treatment of patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF), including the beneficial role of angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibition (ARNI) treatment in reducing outcomes including mortality, ivabradine in reducing heart failure hospitalizations in stable HFrEF patients with sinus rhythm and heart rate ≥ 70 bpm despite β-blockers. In patients with HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), though there are no studies demonstrating survival benefit, potential benefit with aldosterone antagonism in reducing HF hospitalizations is noted. In treatment of comorbidities, optimization of blood pressure control to less than 130 mmHg is recommended in hypertensive patients to prevent HF or in patients with hypertension and HFrEF or HFpEF. In addition to recognition on the potential role of treatment of iron deficiency anemia to improve symptoms and functional capacity, caution against use of adaptive servo-ventilation in patients with HFrEF and central sleep apnea and against use of erythropoietin stimulating agents in patients with HFrEF is provided.
There are new treatment strategies that are associated with significant improvements in mortality and other outcomes in patients with HF. Successful management of HF requires recognition of indications, contraindications, benefits, safety, and risk of these new therapies. In addition to incorporation of these new treatment strategies, it is critical to focus also on patient education, care coordination, identification of goals of care, monitoring, management of comorbidities, and individualization of therapies. New treatment modalities increase the choices for treatment and provide the opportunity to implement individualized treatment strategies for our patients.
KeywordsHeart failure guidelines Biomarkers Comorbidities ARNI Ivabradine
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Biykem Bozkurt declares that she has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance
- 1.•• Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE Jr, Colvin MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2017;136(6):e137–61. These are the focused update of the HF guidelines endorsed by the AHA/ACC and HFSA. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Richards AM, Doughty R, Nicholls MG, MacMahon S, Sharpe N, Murphy J, et al. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and adrenomedullin: prognostic utility and prediction of benefit from carvedilol in chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Australia-New Zealand heart failure group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:1781–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Moe GW, Howlett J, Januzzi JL, Zowall H. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide testing improves the management of patients with suspected acute heart failure: primary results of the Canadian prospective randomized multicenter IMPROVE-CHF study. Circulation. 2007;115:3103–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE Jr, Drazner MH, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013;128:e240–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Yancy, CW, Jessup, M, Bozkurt, B, Butler, J, Casey, DE, Jr, Colvin, MM, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: a Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation. 2017.Google Scholar
- 21.Kociol RD, Horton JR, Fonarow GC, Reyes EM, Shaw LK, O’Connor CM, et al. Admission, discharge, or change in B-type natriuretic peptide and long-term outcomes: data from organized program to initiate lifesaving treatment in hospitalized patients with heart failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) linked to Medicare claims. Circ Heart Fail. 2011;4:628–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Lainchbury JG, Troughton RW, Strangman KM, Frampton CM, Pilbrow A, Yandle TG, et al. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment for chronic heart failure: results from the BATTLESCARRED (NT-proBNP-assisted treatment to lessen serial cardiac readmissions and death) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;55:53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Troughton RW, Frampton CM, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Pfisterer M, Eurlings LW, Erntell H, et al. Effect of B-type natriuretic peptide-guided treatment of chronic heart failure on total mortality and hospitalization: an individual patient meta-analysis. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:1559–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 30.•• Felker GM, Anstrom KJ, Adams KF, Ezekowitz JA, Fiuzat M, Houston-Miller N, et al. Effect of natriuretic peptide-guided therapy on hospitalization or cardiovascular mortality in high-risk patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2017;318:713–20. This is the largest scale randomized clinical trial demonstrating that natriuretic peptide guided therapy was not associated with improvement in outcomes including mortality when compared to usual care. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 33.Huelsmann M, Neuhold S, Resl M, Strunk G, Brath H, Francesconi C, et al. PONTIAC (NT-proBNP selected prevention of cardiac events in a population of diabetic patients without a history of cardiac disease): a prospective randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:1365–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.•• McMurray JJ, Packer M, Desai AS, Gong J, Lefkowitz MP, Rizkala AR, et al. Angiotensin-neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:993–1004. This is the PARADIGM trial, demonstrating significant benefit in all clinical outcomes including mortality with treatmet with ARNI compared to enalapril in patients with HFrEF. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.US Food and Drug Administration (2015) Sacubitril and valsartan drug label and prescribing information.Google Scholar
- 41.•• Swedberg K, Komajda M, Bohm M, Borer JS, Ford I, Dubost-Brama A, et al. Ivabradine and outcomes in chronic heart failure (SHIFT): a randomised placebo-controlled study. Lancet. 2010;376:875–85. This is the largest study with ivabradine in HF patients demonstrating improvement in HF hospitalizations with ivabradine treatment compared to placebo in HFrEF patients with sinus rhythm and heart rate equal or higher than 70 beats per minuted despite beta blocker treatment. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.US Food and Drug Administration (2015) Ivabradine Drug Label.Google Scholar
- 43.Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JG, Coats AJ, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: the task force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)developed with the special contribution of the heart failure association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J. 2016;37:2129–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 47.O’Meara E, Clayton T, McEntegart MB, McMurray JJ, Lang CC, Roger SD, et al. Clinical correlates and consequences of anemia in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure: results of the candesartan in heart failure: assessment of reduction in mortality and morbidity (CHARM) program. Circulation. 2006;113:986–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar