Skip to main content

Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Cardiovascular Health

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review aims to discuss the effect of alcohol consumption on various cardiovascular (CV) diseases and CV mortality.

Recent Findings

Alcohol intake has consistently shown a J- or U-shaped relationship with several cardiovascular diseases. Light to moderate alcohol intake has been associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), as well as CV mortality. On the other hand, heavy consumption has been associated with deleterious CV outcomes including increased mortality. However, the evidence is based from observational and population-based studies where risk of confounding cannot be excluded even after meticulous methodological approaches. This is compounded by conflicting data such as higher risk of certain CV diseases like HF in former drinkers compared to abstainers. Further, Mendelian randomization studies using genetic polymorphisms in enzymes have recently questioned the beneficial association of low-moderate drinking with CV system.

Summary

There has been substantial and consistent evidence that light to moderate alcohol consumption have beneficial effect on overall cardiovascular profile and mortality. However, there are considerable limitations in the reported literature to determine a strong causality of a protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption by itself. Further robust studies or possibly a well-structured randomized controlled could bring an end to this debate.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

  1. 1.

    World Health Organization Management of Substance Abuse Team. Global status report on alcohol and health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. 85

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol-related disease impact (ARDI). Atlanta: CDC.

  3. 3.

    Stahre M, Roeber J, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Zhang X. Contribution of excessive alcohol consumption to deaths and years of potential life lost in the United States. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:130293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 national and state costs of excessive alcohol consumption. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):e73–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    •• Fernández-Solà J. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015;12:576–87. This is an excellent review article discussing the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption on cardiovascular mortality.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Mukamal KJ, Rimm EB. Alcohol consumption: risks and benefits. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10:536–43.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary disease and stroke in women. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(5):267–73.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Roerecke M, Rehm J. The cardioprotective association of average alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2012;107:1246–60.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Roerecke M, Rehm J. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and ischemic heart disease: a narrative review of meta-analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of heavy drinking occasions on risk for moderate drinkers. BMC Med. 2014;12:182.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ronksley PE, Brien SE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011;342:d671.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    O’Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1009–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chikritzhs T, Stockwell T, Naimi T, Andreasson S, Dangardt F, Liang W. Has the leaning tower of presumed health benefits from ‘moderate’ alcohol use finally collapsed? Addiction. 2015;110:726–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Fekjaer HO. Alcohol-a universal preventive agent? A critical analysis. Addiction. 2013;108:2051–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Di Castelnuovo A, Costanzo S, Bagnardi V, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G. Alcohol dosing and total mortality in men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2437–45.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Gaziano JM, Gaziano TA, Glynn RJ, Sesso HD, Ajani UA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study enrollment cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:96–105.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Grønbaek M, Johansen D, Becker U, Hein HO, Schnohr P, Jensen G, et al. Changes in alcohol intake and mortality: a longitudinal population study. Epidemiology. 2004;15:222–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD, Monaco JA, Henley SJ, Heath CW, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly US adults. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:1705–14.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Goldberg RJ, Burchfiel CM, Reed DM, Wergowske G, Chiu D. A prospective study of the health effects of alcohol consumption in middle-aged and elderly men: the Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation. 1994;89:651–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Mukamal KJ, Chen CM, Rao SR, Breslow RA. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality among U.S. adults, 1987 to 2002. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(13):1328–35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Femia R, Natali A, L’Abbate A, Ferrannini E. Coronary atherosclerosis and alcohol consumption: angiographic and mortality data. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:1607–12.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Vliegenthart R, Oei HHS, van den Elzen APM, van Rooij FJA, Hofman A, Oudkerk M, et al. Alcohol consumption and coronary calcification in a general population. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2355–60.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Schminke U, Luedemann J, Berger K, Alte D, Mitusch R, Wood WG, et al. Association between alcohol consumption and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: the Study of Health in Pomerania. Stroke. 2005;36:1746–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Renaud S, Criqui MH, Farchi G, Veenstra J. Alcohol drinking and coronary heart disease. In: Verschuren PM, editor. Health issues related to alcohol consumption. Washington: ILSI Press; 1993. p. 81–124.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Corrao G, Rubbiati L, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, Poikolainen K. Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Addiction. 2000;95:1505–23.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Gunzerath L, Faden V, Zakhari S, Warren K. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism report on moderate drinking. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:829–49.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. INTER-HEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTER-HEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–52.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Mukamal KJ, Chiuve SE, Rimm EB. Alcohol consumption and risk for coronary heart disease in men with healthy lifestyles. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2145–50.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Camargo CA Jr, Stampfer MJ, Glynn RJ, Grodstein F, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk for angina pectoris or myocardial infarction in U.S. male physicians. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:372–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Agarwal DP, Srivastava LM. Does moderate alcohol intake protect against coronary heart disease? Indian Heart J. 2001;53:224–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Mukamal K, Maclure M, Muller JE, Sherwood JB, Mittleman MA. Prior alcohol consumption and mortality following acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2001;285:1965–70.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Mukamal KJ, Girotra S, Mittleman MA. Alcohol consumption, atherosclerotic progression, and prognosis among patients with coronary artery bypass grafts. Am Heart J. 2006;151:368–72.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Costanzo S, Di Castelnuovo A, Donati MB, Iacoviello L, de Gaetano G. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(13):1339–47.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Marfella R, Cacciapuoti F, Siniscalchi M, Sasso FC, Marchese F, Cinone F, et al. Effect of moderate red wine intake on cardiac prognosis after recent acute myocardial infarction of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2006;23(9):974–81.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Carter MD, Lee JH, Buchanan DM, Peterson ED, Tang F, Reid KJ, et al. Comparison of outcomes among moderate alcohol drinkers before acute myocardial infarction to effect of continued versus discontinuing alcohol intake after the infarct. Am J Cardiol. 2010;105(12):1651–4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Hvidtfeldt UA, Tolstrup JS, Jakobsen MU, Heitmann BL, Gronbaek M, O'Reilly E, et al. Alcohol intake and risk of coronary heart disease in younger, middle-aged, and older adults. Circulation. 2010;121(14):1589–97.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mukamal KJ, Chung H, Jenny NS, Kuller LH, Longstreth WT Jr, Mittleman MA, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(1):30–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet. 2009;373(9682):2223–33.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Baraona E, Abittan CS, Dohmen K, Moretti M, Pozzato G, Chayes ZW, et al. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001;25(4):502–7.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Solomon CG, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rimm EB, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2000;102:494–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Janszky I, Mukamal KJ, Orth-Gomer K, Romelsjo A, SchenckGustafsson K, Svane B, et al. Alcohol consumption and coronary atherosclerosis progression: the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Angiographic Study. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176:311–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Freiberg MS, Chang YF, Kraemer KL, Robinson JG, Adams-Campbell LL, Kuller LL. Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and total mortality among women. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(11):1212–8.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Rajpathak SN, Freiberg MS, Wang C, Wylie-Rosett J, Wildman RP, Rohan TE, et al. Alcohol consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women with diabetes: Women's Health Initiative observational study. Eur J Nutr. 2010;49(4):211–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Behrens G, Leitzmann MF, Sandin S, Löf M, Heid IM, Adami HO, et al. The association between alcohol consumption and mortality: the Swedish women's lifestyle and health study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26(2):81–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Roy A, Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Thankappan KR, Mohan V, Ramakrishnan L, et al. Impact of alcohol on coronary heart disease in Indian men. Atherosclerosis. 2010;210(2):531–5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Schooling CM, Sun W, Ho SY, et al. Moderate alcohol use and mortality from ischemic heart disease: a prospective study in older Chinese people. PLoS One. 2008;3(6):e2370.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Renaud S, de Lorgeril M. Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1992;339(8808):1523–6.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Mukamal KJ, Jensen MK, Grønbæk M, et al. Drinking frequency, mediating biomarkers, and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men. Circulation. 2005;112:1406–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Mukamal KJ, Conigrave KM, Mittleman MA, Camargo CA Jr, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:109–18.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Corder R, Mullent W, Khan NQ, et al. Red wine procyanidins and vascular health. Nature. 2006;444:566.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Ellison RC. Importance of pattern of alcohol consumption. Circulation. 2005;112:3818–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Shaper A, Wannamethee G, Walker M. Alcohol and mortality in British men: explaining the U-shaped curve. Lancet. 1988;2:1267–73.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Larsson SC, Drca N, Wolk A. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: a prospective study and dose-response meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64:281–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Inoue M, Nagata C, Tsuji I, Sugawara Y, Wakai K, Tamakoshi A, et al. Impact of alcohol intake on total mortality and mortality from major causes in Japan: a pooled analysis of six large-scale cohort studies. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66:448–56.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Hart CL, Davey Smith G, Gruer L, Watt GC. The combined effect of smoking tobacco and drinking alcohol on cause-specific mortality: a 30 year cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:789.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Ebbert JO, Janney CA, Sellers TA, Folsom AR, Cerhan JR. The association of alcohol consumption with coronary heart disease mortality and cancer incidence varies by smoking history. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20:14–20.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Zaridze D, Lewington S, Boroda A, Scélo G, Karpov R, Lazarev A, et al. Alcohol and mortality in Russia: prospective observational study of 151,000 adults. Lancet. 2014;383:1465–73.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Holmes MV, Dale CE, Zuccolo L, Silverwood RJ, Guo Y, Ye Z, et al. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data. Br Med J. 2014;349:g4164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Frick U, Rehm J. Can we establish causality with statistical analyses? The example of epidemiology. In: Wiedermann W, von Eye A, et al., editors. Statistics and causality: methods for applied empirical research. Hoboken: Wiley; 2016. p. 407–32.

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Heidrich J, Wellmann J, Doring A, Illig T, Keil U. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase and risk of coronary heart disease in the MONICA/KORA-Augsburg cohort 1994/ 1995–2002. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14:769–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Tolstrup JS, Grønbaek M, Nordestgaard BG. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:507–14.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Butt P, Beirness D, Cesa F, Gliksman L, Paradis C, Stockwell T. Alcohol and health in Canada: a summary of evidence and guidelines for low-risk drinking. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse; 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Pflaum T, Hausler T, Baumung C, Ackermann S, Kuballa T, Rehm J, et al. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:2349–67.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Rehm J, Kailasapillai S, Larsen E, Rehm MX, Samokhvalov AV, Shield KD, et al. A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol. Addiction. 2014;109:880–93.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Krenz M, Korthuis RJ. Moderate ethanol ingestion and cardiovascular protection: from epidemiologic associations to cellular mechanisms. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52(1):93–104.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Perissinotto E, Buja A, Maggi S, Enzi G, Manzato E, Scafato E, et al. Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in older lifelong wine drinkers: the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(9):647–55.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Wakabayashi I. Associations between alcohol drinking and multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis in smokers and nonsmokers. Angiology. 2010;61(5):495–503.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    De Oliveira Silva ER, Foster D, McGee Harper M, et al. Alcohol consumption raises HDL cholesterol levels by increasing the transport rate of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Circulation. 2000;102(19):2347–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Mukamal KJ, Mackey RH, Kuller LH, Tracy RP, Kronmal RA, Mittleman MA, et al. Alcohol consumption and lipoprotein subclasses in older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(7):2559–66.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ. Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors. Br Med J. 1999;319:1523–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Criqui MH, Golomb BA. Epidemiologic aspects of lipid abnormalities. Am J Med. 1998;105(1A):48S–57S.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Shlomo YB, Timpson N, Harbord R, Christensen M, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase type 1C (ADH1C) variants, alcohol consumption traits, HDL-cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease in women and men: British Women’s Heart and Health Study and Caerphilly cohorts. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196(2):871–8.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Sierksma A, Patel H, Ouchi N, Kihara S, Funahashi T, Heine RJ, et al. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):184–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Greenfield JR, Samaras K, Jenkins AB, Kelly PJ, Spector TD, Campbell LV. Moderate alcohol consumption, estrogen replacement therapy, and physical activity are associated with increased insulin sensitivity: is abdominal adiposity the mediator? Diabetes Care. 2003;26(10):2734–40.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Davies MJ, Baer DJ, Judd JT, Brown ED, Campbell WS, Taylor PR. Effects of moderate alcohol intake on fasting insulin and glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287(19):2559–62.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Gigleux I, Gagnon J, St-Pierre A, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Meyer F, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption is more cardioprotective in men with the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2006;136:3027–32.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Fan AZ, Russell M, Dorn J, Freudenheim JL, Nochajski T, Hovey K, et al. Lifetime alcohol drinking pattern is related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: the Western New York Health Study (WNYHS). Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21:129–38.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Robinson G, Narasimhan S, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Raised plasma homocysteine levels in alcoholism: increasing the risk of heart disease and dementia? N Z Med J. 2005;118:U1490.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Pagel PS, Toller WG, Gross ER, Gare M, Kersten JR, Warltier DC. KATP channels mediate the beneficial effects of chronic ethanol ingestion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000;279:H2574–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Zhou HZ, Karliner JS, Gray MO. Moderate alcohol consumption induces sustained cardiac protection by activating PKC- and Akt. Am J Phys. 2002;283:H165–74.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Nelson S, Kolls JK. Alcohol, host defense and society. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:205–9.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Stoltz DA, Nelson S, Kolls JK, et al. In vitro ethanol suppresses alveolar macrophage TNF-alpha during simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:135–40.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Szabo G. Consequences of alcohol consumption on host defense. Alcohol Alcohol. 1999;43:830–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Seppä K, Sillanaukee P. Binge drinking and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension. 1999;33(1):79–82.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Halanych JH, Safford MM, Kertesz SG, Pletcher MJ, Kim YI, Person SD, et al. Alcohol consumption in young adults and incident hypertension: 20-year follow-up from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(5):532–9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Briasoulis A, Agarwal V, Messerli FH. Alcohol consumption and the risk of hypertension in men and women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14(11):792–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Taylor B, Irving HM, Baliunas D, Roerecke M, Patra J, Mohapatra S, et al. Alcohol and hypertension: gender differences in dose-response relationships determined through systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. 2009;104(12):1981–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    •• Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Heart Fail. 2015;17(4):367–73. This is an excellent meta-analysis looking at the effects of alcohol and risk of heart failure development.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Bryson CL, Mukamal KJ, Mittleman MA, Fried LP, Hirsch CH, Kitzman DW, et al. The association of alcohol consumption and incident heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:305–31.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Larsson SC, Wallin A, Wolk A. Contrasting association between alcohol consumption and risk of myocardial infarction and heart failure: two prospective cohorts. Int J Cardiol. 2017;231:207–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Piano MR, Phillips SA. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiologic insights. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2014;14(4):291–308.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Fernández-Solà J, Estruch R, Nicolás JM, Paré JC, Sacanella E, Antúnez E, et al. Comparison of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in women versus men. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80(4):481–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Tanasescu M, Hu FB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB. Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38(7):1836–42.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Koppes LL, Dekker JM, Hendriks HF, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):719–25.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Goldberg IJ, Mosca L, Piano MR, Fisher EA, Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. AHA science advisory: wine and your heart: a science advisory for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001;103(3):472–5.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Abhishek Sharma.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Abhishek Sharma, Sunny Goel, and Aakash Garg declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Ischemic Heart Disease

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Goel, S., Sharma, A. & Garg, A. Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Cardiovascular Health. Curr Cardiol Rep 20, 19 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-018-0962-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Heart failure
  • Cardiovascular mortality
  • Cardio protection
  • Cardiomyopathy