Lifestyle modification is primary in cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention. A major contribution is the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), defined by two of seven components. Italian investigators determined a significant decrease in peripheral arterial disease of 56 % for a high score. Multiple specific CV risk factors are also favorably modified by the MedDiet. This includes beneficial effect on inflammation, vascular endothelium, and insulin resistance. There is also evidence that coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome are decreased. Benefit appears to extend to new migrants in France. The economics of dietary adherence are favorable with decreased total lifetime health costs. Although mixed nuts appear to be a major factor in the MedDiet, special emphasis goes to extra virgin olive oil. Benefit also extends to other noncommunicable diseases with a decrease in cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. Further quantitation of benefit and understanding of mechanisms involved in dietary benefit is essential.
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Coronary heart disease
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
Peripheral arterial disease
Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea
Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
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Thomas F. Whayne, Jr. declares that he has no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Ischemic Heart Disease
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Whayne, T.F. Ischemic Heart Disease and the Mediterranean Diet. Curr Cardiol Rep 16, 491 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-014-0491-6
- Cardiovascular risk
- Coronary heart disease
- Ischemic heart disease
- Mediterranean diet
- Metabolic syndrome
- Myocardial infarction
- Peripheral arterial disease