Pathophysiology of Overactive Bladder: Current Understanding

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To describe leading hypotheses surrounding the pathophysiology of overactive bladder (OAB), as well as describe the mechanisms of action of current treatment options for OAB.

Recent Findings

There are two main underlying mechanisms of OAB: mechanisms with increased sensory (afferent) activity and mechanisms with abnormal management of afferent signals. In the former category, increased afferent activity is thought to be related either to abnormalities in the urothelium receptor function and neurotransmitter release (urothelium-based hypothesis) or to abnormalities in myocyte excitability (myogenic hypothesis). In the latter category, OAB is thought to be related to the dysregulation of the handling of afferent signals (neurogenic hypothesis).

Summary

OAB is complex and multifactorial in its etiology. Further research should be undertaken to better characterize the pathophysiology of the disorder, so that more targeted treatments can be developed.

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Correspondence to Judy M. Choi.

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Dr. Palmer and Dr. Choi declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Overactive Bladder

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Palmer, C.J., Choi, J.M. Pathophysiology of Overactive Bladder: Current Understanding. Curr Bladder Dysfunct Rep 12, 74–79 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11884-017-0402-y

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Keywords

  • Overactive bladder
  • Urinary frequency
  • Urinary urgency
  • Urinary incontinence