Purpose of Review
The main purpose of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among two of the largest and most diverse immigrant groups in the United States (Hispanics/Latinos and South Asians).
While the migration process generates unique challenges for individuals, there is a wide heterogeneity in the characteristics of immigrant populations, both between and within regions of origin. Hispanic/Latino immigrants to the United States have lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalence, and mortality, but this assessment is limited by issues related to the “salmon bias.” South Asian immigrants to the United States generally have higher levels of risk factors and higher mortality. In both cases, levels of risk factors and mortality generally increase with time of living in the United States (US).
While immigration acts as a social determinant of health, associations between immigration and cardiovascular disease and its risk factors are complex and vary across subpopulations.
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United States of America
Social determinants of health
National Health Interview Survey
Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America
Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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JG was supported, in part, by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Research Scholar program and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (T32-HL125294). UB was supported by the Office of the Director of the National Institutes of Health under award number DP5OD26429. The funding sources had no role in the analysis, writing, or decision to submit the manuscript.
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Guadamuz, J.S., Kapoor, K., Lazo, M. et al. Understanding Immigration as a Social Determinant of Health: Cardiovascular Disease in Hispanics/Latinos and South Asians in the United States. Curr Atheroscler Rep 23, 25 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-021-00920-9
- Cardiovascular disease
- Health disparities
- Immigrant health
- South Asia