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Non-nutritive Sweeteners and Glycaemic Control

Abstract

Purpose of Review

The consumption of foods and beverages containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has increased worldwide over the last three decades. Consumers’ choice of NNS rather than sugar or other nutritive sweeteners may be attributable to their potential to reduce weight gain.

Recent Findings

It is not clear what the effects of NNS consumption are on glycaemic control and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. This review aims to examine this question in epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies.

Summary

It is not clear that NNS consumption has an effect on the incidence of type 2 diabetes or on glycaemic control even though there is some evidence for the modification of the microbiome and for interaction with sweet taste receptors in the oral cavity and the intestines’ modification of secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which may affect glycaemia following consumption of NNS. In conclusion, long-term studies of NNS consumption are required to draw a firm conclusion about the role of NNS consumption on glycaemic control.

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Fig. 1

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All authors conceived of the manuscript structure and contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Peter M. Clifton.

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Yoona Kim, Jennifer B. Keogh, and Peter M. Clifton declare they have no conflict of interest.

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Kim, Y., Keogh, J.B. & Clifton, P.M. Non-nutritive Sweeteners and Glycaemic Control. Curr Atheroscler Rep 21, 49 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-019-0814-6

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Keywords

  • Non-nutritive sweeteners
  • Glucose
  • T2DM