Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
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Purpose of Review
We review recent epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the consumption of tree nuts and peanuts and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality as well as CVD risk factors.
A greater consumption of tree nuts and peanuts is associated with a reduced risk of CVD mortality, as well as lower CVD events. Furthermore, risk factors associated with the development of CVD such as dyslipidemia, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are improved with regular tree nut and peanut consumption through a range of mechanism associated with their nutrient-rich profiles. There is weak inconsistent evidence for an effect of nut consumption on inflammation. There is emerging evidence that consuming tree nuts reduces the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and promotes diversity of gut microbiota, which in turn may improve CVD outcomes.
Evidence for CVD prevention is strong for some varieties of tree nuts, particularly walnuts, and length of supplementation and dose are important factors for consideration with recommendations.
KeywordsNuts; cardiovascular diseases Cholesterol Inflammation Vascular stiffness Microbiota
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Coates reports grants from the Peanut Company of Australia, the Almond Board of California, the Almond Board of Australia, and the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council, outside the submitted work. Dr. Tan reports grants from Almond Board of California, outside the submitted work. Dr. Hill reports grants from Almond Board of California, the Almond Board of Australia, and the International Nut and Dried Fruit Council, outside the submitted work.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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