Advertisement

Dairy Products, Dairy Fatty Acids, and the Prevention of Cardiometabolic Disease: a Review of Recent Evidence

  • Edward Yu
  • Frank B. Hu
Nutrition (P. Kris-Etherton, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Nutrition

Abstract

Purpose of Review

To examine recent literature on dairy products, dairy fatty acids, and cardiometabolic disease. Primary questions of interest include what unique challenges researchers face when investigating dairy products/biomarkers, whether one should consume dairy to reduce disease risk, whether dairy fatty acids may be beneficial for health, and whether one should prefer low- or high-fat dairy products.

Recent Findings

Dairy composes about 10% of the calories in a typical American diet, about half of that coming from fluid milk, half coming from cheese, and small amounts from yogurt. Most meta-analyses report no or weak inverse association between dairy intake with cardiovascular disease and related intermediate outcomes. There is some suggestion that dairy consumption was inversely associated with stroke incidence and yogurt consumption was associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Odd chain fatty acids (OCFAs) found primarily in dairy (15:0 and 17:0) appear to be inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk, but causation is uncertain. Substitution analyses based on prospective cohorts suggested that replacing dairy fat with vegetable fat or polyunsaturated fat was associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

Summary

Current evidence suggests null or weak inverse association between consumption of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease. However, replacing dairy fat with polyunsaturated fat, especially from plant-based foods, may confer health benefits. More research is needed to examine health effects of different types of dairy products in diverse populations.

Keywords

Dairy Saturated fat Yogurt Cardiovascular disease Odd chain fatty acids 

Notes

Funding Information

This research was supported by the National Institute of Health grants R01 HL060712 and F31 DK114938.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Frank Hu has received research support from the California Walnut Commission and an honorarium from Metagenics. Dr. Edward Yu declares no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Gaucheron F. Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination. J Am Coll Nutr. 2011;30(5 Suppl 1):400s–9s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sacks FM, Lichtenstein AH, Wu JHY, Appel LJ, Creager MA, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Dietary fats and cardiovascular disease: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;136:e1–e23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Agriculture USDo. Food Availability (Per Capita) Data System 2016 [cited 2017 July 26]. Available from: https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-availability-per-capita-data-system/.
  4. 4.
    Bainbridge ML, Cersosimo LM, Wright A-DG, Kraft J. Content and composition of branched-chain fatty acids in bovine milk are affected by lactation stage and breed of dairy cow. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0150386.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    SR28 U. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 28. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory http://www ars usda gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl Accessed. 2016;26.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stefanov I, Baeten V, Abbas O, Colman E, Vlaeminck B, De Baets B, et al. Analysis of milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids using Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(20):10804–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lock AL, Bauman DE. Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids. 2004;39(12):1197–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    O'Donnell-Megaro AM, Barbano DM, Bauman DE. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94(1):59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sofie Biong A, Berstad P, Pedersen JI. Biomarkers for intake of dairy fat and dairy products. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2006;108(10):827–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horning MG, Martin DB, Karmen A, Vagelos PR. Fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue. II. Enzymatic synthesis of branched chain and odd-numbered fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 1961;236:669–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tserng KY, Kliegman RM, Miettinen EL, Kalhan SC. A rapid, simple, and sensitive procedure for the determination of free fatty acids in plasma using glass capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. J Lipid Res. 1981;22(5):852–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eaton S, Bartlett KB, Pourfarzam M. Mammalian mitochondrial β-oxidation. Biochem J. 1996;320(2):345–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jenkins B, West JA, Koulman A. A review of odd-chain fatty acid metabolism and the role of pentadecanoic acid (c15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (c17:0) in health and disease. Molecules. 2015;20(2):2425–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Research Council Committee on Technological Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal P. Factors affecting the composition of milk from dairy cows. Designing foods: animal product options in the marketplace. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) Copyright (c) 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences.; 1988Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McGregor RA, Poppitt SD. Milk protein for improved metabolic health: a review of the evidence. Nutr Metab. 2013;10(1):46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jenness R. Biochemical and nutritional aspects of milk and colostrum. Lactation/edited by Bruce L Larson; written by Ralph R Anderson [et al]. 1985.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scrimshaw NS, Murray EB. The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(4):1142–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Willett WC, Reynolds RD, Cottrell-Hoehner S, Sampson L, Browne ML. Validation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire: comparison with a 1-year diet record. J Am Diet Assoc. 1987;87(1):43–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Subar AF, Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Hurwitz P, McNutt S, et al. Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires the Eating at America’s Table Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154(12):1089–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Byers T, Marshall J, Anthony E, Fiedler R, Zielezny M. The reliability of dietary history from the distant past. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125(6):999–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Liere MJ, Lucas F, Clavel F, Slimani N, Villeminot S. Relative validity and reproducibility of a French dietary history questionnaire. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26(Suppl 1):S128–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spain EGo. Relative validity and reproducibility of a diet history questionnaire in Spain. I. Foods. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26(Suppl 1):S91–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolk A, Vessby B, Ljung H, Barrefors P. Evaluation of a biological marker of dairy fat intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(2):291–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wolk A, Furuheim M, Vessby B. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and serum lipids are valid biological markers of dairy fat intake in men. J Nutr. 2001;131(3):828–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lankinen M, Schwab U. Biomarkers of dairy fat. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(5):1101–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Foulon V, Sniekers M, Huysmans E, Asselberghs S, Mahieu V, Mannaerts GP, et al. Breakdown of 2-hydroxylated straight chain fatty acids via peroxisomal 2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase: a revised pathway for the alpha-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(11):9802–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kondo N, Ohno Y, Yamagata M, Obara T, Seki N, Kitamura T, et al. Identification of the phytosphingosine metabolic pathway leading to odd-numbered fatty acids. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Su X, Han X, Yang J, Mancuso DJ, Chen J, Bickel PE, et al. Sequential ordered fatty acid α oxidation and Δ9 desaturation are major determinants of lipid storage and utilization in differentiating adipocytes. Biochemistry. 2004;43(17):5033–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberts LD, Virtue S, Vidal-Puig A, Nicholls AW, Griffin JL. Metabolic phenotyping of a model of adipocyte differentiation. Physiol Genomics. 2009;39(2):109–19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weitkunat K, Schumann S, Nickel D, Hornemann S, Petzke KJ, Schulze MB, et al. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017:ajcn152702.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Health UDo, Services H. 2015–2020 dietary guidelines for Americans. Washington (DC): USDA. 2015.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guo J, Astrup A, Lovegrove JA, Gijsbers L, Givens DI, Soedamah-Muthu SS. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017;32(4):269–87.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    de Goede J, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Pan A, Gijsbers L, Geleijnse JM. Dairy consumption and risk of stroke: a systematic review and updated dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Am Heart Assoc: Cardiovasc Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016;5(5):e002787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Soedamah-Muthu SS, Verberne LD, Ding EL, Engberink MF, Geleijnse JM. Dairy consumption and incidence of hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. 2012;60(5):1131–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ding M, Huang T, Bergholdt HK, Nordestgaard BG, Ellervik C, Qi L. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study. BMJ 2017;356.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim Y, Je Y. Dairy consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2016;33(4):428–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gijsbers L, Ding EL, Malik VS, de Goede J, Geleijnse JM, Soedamah-Muthu SS. Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103:1111–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mitri J, Barakatun N, Truong S, ElSayed N, Hamdy O. The effect of dairy consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Lipidol. 2017;11(3):825–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Labonté M-È, Couture P, Richard C, Desroches S, Lamarche B. Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(4):706–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chen GC, Wang Y, Tong X, Szeto IM, Smit G, Li ZN, et al. Cheese consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr 2016.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Farvid MS, Malekshah AF, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Sepanlou SG, Sharafkhah M, et al. Dairy food intake and all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality: the Golestan cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185(8):697–711.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Committee DGA. Scientific report of the 2015 dietary guidelines advisory committee. Washington (DC): USDA and US Department of Health and Human Services; 2015.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(2):243–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fung TT, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Hu FB. Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(15):1857–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hu FB, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Willett WC. Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):912–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kerver JM, Yang EJ, Bianchi L, Song WO. Dietary patterns associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in healthy US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(6):1103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saulnier DMA, Spinler JK, Gibson GR, Versalovic J. Mechanisms of probiosis and prebiosis: considerations for enhanced functional foods. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2009;20(2):135–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, Hu FB. Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(4):735–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Heller KJ. Probiotic bacteria in fermented foods: product characteristics and starter organisms1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(2):374s–9s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Plessas S, Bosnea L, Alexopoulos A, Bezirtzoglou E. Potential effects of probiotics in cheese and yogurt production: a review. Engineering in Life Sciences. 2012;12(4):433–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Biong AS, Veierod MB, Ringstad J, Thelle DS, Pedersen JI. Intake of milk fat, reflected in adipose tissue fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;60(2):236–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goldbohm RA, Chorus AM, Galindo Garre F, Schouten LJ, van den Brandt PA. Dairy consumption and 10-y total and cardiovascular mortality: a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(3):615–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    de Oliveira Otto MC, Mozaffarian D, Kromhout D, Bertoni AG, Sibley CT, Jacobs DR Jr, et al. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(2):397–404.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chen M, Li Y, Sun Q, Pan A, Manson JE, Rexrode KM, et al. Dairy fat and risk of cardiovascular disease in 3 cohorts of US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:1209–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Li Y, Hruby A, Bernstein AM, Ley SH, Wang DD, Chiuve SE, et al. Saturated fat as compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66(14):1538–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liang J, Zhou Q, Kwame Amakye W, Su Y, Zhang Z. Biomarkers of dairy fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016:1–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Forouhi NG, Koulman A, Sharp SJ, Imamura F, Kröger J, Schulze MB, et al. Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(10):810–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Krachler B, Norberg M, Eriksson JW, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Vessby B, et al. Fatty acid profile of the erythrocyte membrane preceding development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008;18(7):503–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hodge AM, English DR, O'Dea K, Sinclair AJ, Makrides M, Gibson RA, et al. Plasma phospholipid and dietary fatty acids as predictors of type 2 diabetes: interpreting the role of linoleic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(1):189–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yakoob MY, Shi P, Willett WC, Rexrode KM, Campos H, Orav EJ, et al. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident diabetes mellitus among men and women in the United States in two large prospective cohorts. Circulation. 2016;133(17):1645–54.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Santaren ID, Watkins SM, Liese AD, Wagenknecht LE, Rewers MJ, Haffner SM, et al. Serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a short-term marker of dairy food intake, is inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes and its underlying disorders. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1532–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Patel PS, Sharp SJ, Jansen E, Luben RN, Khaw K-T, Wareham NJ, et al. Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1214–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mozaffarian D, Cao H, King IB, Lemaitre RN, Song X, Siscovick DS, et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, metabolic risk factors, and new-onset diabetes in US adults. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(12):790–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kröger J, Zietemann V, Enzenbach C, Weikert C, Jansen EH, Döring F, et al. Erythrocyte membrane phospholipid fatty acids, desaturase activity, and dietary fatty acids in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(1):127–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mozaffarian D, de Oliveira Otto MC, Lemaitre RN, Fretts AM, Hotamisligil G, Tsai MY, et al. Trans-palmitoleic acid, other dairy fat biomarkers, and incident diabetes: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(4):854–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology: Oxford University Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Risérus U, Marklund M. Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2017;28(1):46–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rosell M, Johansson G, Berglund L, Vessby B, de Faire U, Hellenius ML. The relation between alcohol intake and physical activity and the fatty acids 14:0, 15:0 and 17:0 in serum phospholipids and adipose tissue used as markers for dairy fat intake. Br J Nutr. 2005;93(1):115–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jenkins BJ, Seyssel K, Chiu S, Pan P-H, Lin S-Y, Stanley E, et al. Odd chain fatty acids; new insights of the relationship between the gut microbiota, dietary intake, biosynthesis and glucose intolerance. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44845.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Palmquist DL. Milk fat: origin of fatty acids and influence of nutritional factors thereon. In: Fox PF, McSweeney PLH, editors. Advanced dairy chemistry volume 2 lipids. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 43–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huth PJ, Park KM. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutr: Int Rev J. 2012;3(3):266–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Benatar JR, Sidhu K, Stewart RA. Effects of high and low fat dairy food on cardio-metabolic risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e76480.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jousilahti P, Laatikainen T, Peltonen M, Borodulin K, Männistö S, Jula A, et al. Primary prevention and risk factor reduction in coronary heart disease mortality among working aged men and women in eastern Finland over 40 years: population based observational study. BMJ. 2016;352Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gao D, Ning N, Wang C, Wang Y, Li Q, Meng Z, et al. Dairy products consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response Meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;8(9):e73965.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    García Yu IA-L, Sánchez-Aguadero N, Recio-Rodríguez JI. Chapter 25 - Effect of the fat component of dairy products in cardiovascular health, vascular structure and function A2 - Watson, Ronald Ross. In: Collier RJ, Preedy VR, editors. Nutrients in dairy and their implications on health and disease: Academic Press; 2017. p. 325–32.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, Ascherio A, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, et al. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: a comparison of approaches for adjusting for total energy intake and modeling repeated dietary measurements. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(6):531–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Popkin BM, Nielsen SJ. The sweetening of the world’s diet. Obes Res. 2003;11(11):1325–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mattar R, de Campos Mazo DF, Carrilho FJ. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2012;5:113–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dugan CE, Barona J, Fernandez ML. Increased dairy consumption differentially improves metabolic syndrome markers in male and female adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2014;12(1):62–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang H, Steffen LM, Vessby B, Basu S, Steinberger J, Moran A, et al. Obesity modifies the relations between serum markers of dairy fats and inflammation and oxidative stress among adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(12):2404–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dalmeijer GW, Struijk EA, van der Schouw YT, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Verschuren WMM, Boer JMA, et al. Dairy intake and coronary heart disease or stroke—a population-based cohort study. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167(3):925–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NutritionHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations