Consumption of dietary soluble fibers has been associated with health benefits such as reduced lipid levels, lower blood pressure, improved blood glucose control, weight loss, improved immune function, and reduced inflammation. Many of these health benefits relate to a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we have reviewed recent studies on the hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary soluble fibers as well as fiber-rich foods. Findings include the following: (a) consumption of water-soluble, viscous-forming fibers can reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by about 5–10 %; (b) minimal changes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed; (c) cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble fibers depend on their physical and chemical properties; and (d) medium to high molecular weight fibers are more effective in reducing lipid levels. Hypocholesterolemic benefits were also observed with some fiber-rich foods, such as whole oats, whole barley, legumes, peas, beans, flax seeds, apples, and citrus foods.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, Hu FB, Rosner B, Colditz G. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(5):920–7.
Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(1):30–42.
Du H, van der A DL, Boshuizen HC, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Halkjaer J, et al. Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(2):329–36.
Tucker LA, Thomas KS. Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. J Nutr. 2009;139(3):576–81.
Ma Y, Griffith JA, Chasan-Taber L, Olendzki BC, Jackson E, Stanek 3rd EJ, et al. Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(4):760–6.
Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21--Food and Drugs. Chapter I--Food and Drug Administration. Department of Health and Human Services. Subchapter B--Food for Human Consumption. Title 21, Volume 2; Revised as of April 1, 2015. [http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=101.81].
Lecerf JM, Depeint F, Clerc E, Dugenet Y, Niamba CN, Rhazi L, et al. Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) in combination with inulin modulates both the intestinal environment and immune status in healthy subjects, while XOS alone only shows prebiotic properties. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(10):1847–58.
Bartley GE, Yokoyama W, Young SA, Anderson WH, Hung SC, Albers DR, et al. Hypocholesterolemic effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose are mediated by altered gene expression in hepatic bile and cholesterol pathways of male hamsters. J Nutr. 2010;140(7):1255–60.
Theuwissen E, Mensink RP. Water-soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. Physiol Behav. 2008;94(2):285–92.
Cara L, Dubois C, Borel P, Armand M, Senft M, Portugal H, et al. Effects of oat bran, rice bran, wheat fiber, and wheat germ on postprandial lipemia in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(1):81–8.
Sanchez-Muniz FJ. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(1):31–45.
Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis Jr RH, Ferreri S, Knudtson M, Koraym A, et al. Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(4):188–205.
Anderson JW, Randles KM, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. Carbohydrate and fiber recommendations for individuals with diabetes: a quantitative assessment and meta-analysis of the evidence. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004;23(1):5–17.
Pereira MA, O’Reilly E, Augustsson K, Fraser GE, Goldbourt U, Heitmann BL, et al. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):370–6.
Hur SJ, Lee SY, Lee SJ. Effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestibility of lipid and cholesterol oxidation products in beef during in vitro human digestion. Food Chem. 2015;166:254–60.
Bazzano LA. Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10(6):473–7.
Brockman DA, Chen X, Gallaher DD. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, a viscous soluble fiber, reduces insulin resistance and decreases fatty liver in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9(1):100.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol--United States, 1999–2002 and 2005–200. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(4):109–14.
Eussen SR, de Jong N, Rompelberg CJ, Garssen J, Verschuren WM, Klungel OH. Dose-dependent cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterol/phytostanol-enriched margarine in statin users and statin non-users under free-living conditions. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(10):1823–32.
Gunness P, Gidley MJ. Mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering properties of soluble dietary fibre polysaccharides. Food Funct. 2010;1(2):149–55.
Krzysik M, Grajeta H, Prescha A, Weber R. Effect of cellulose, pectin and chromium(III) on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011;25(2):97–102.
Santas J, Espadaler J, Mancebo R, Rafecas M. Selective in vivo effect of chitosan on fatty acid, neutral sterol and bile acid excretion: a longitudinal study. Food Chem. 2012;134(2):940–7.
American Association of Cereal Chemists. Definition of dietary fiber. Report of the dietary fiber definition committee to the board of directors of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. Cereal Foods World. 2001;46:112–26.
Report of the 30th session of the Codex Committee on nutrition and foods for special dietary uses. ALINORM 09/32/26. [http://www.fao.org/input/download/report/710/al32_26e.pdf.]
Wong JM, Jenkins DJ. Carbohydrate digestibility and metabolic effects. J Nutr. 2007;137(11 Suppl):2539S–46.
Enkhmaa B, Surampudi P, Anuurad E, Berglund L. Lifestyle changes: effect of diet, exercise, functional food, and obesity treatment, on lipids and lipoproteins. 2015.
Othman RA, Moghadasian MH, Jones PJ. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat beta-glucan. Nutr Rev. 2011;69(6):299–309.
Charlton KE, Tapsell LC, Batterham MJ, O’Shea J, Thorne R, Beck E, et al. Effect of 6 weeks’ consumption of beta-glucan-rich oat products on cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic overweight adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(7):1037–47.
• Zhu X, Sun X, Wang M, Zhang C, Cao Y, Mo G, et al. Quantitative assessment of the effects of beta-glucan consumption on serum lipid profile and glucose level in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25(8):714–23. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 17 trials until 2012. They report reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with oat intake.
• Whitehead A, Beck EJ, Tosh S, Wolever TM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat beta-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(6):1413–21. An interesting meta-analysis of 28 trials until 2013. The paper reported reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with oat intake.
• Tiwari U, Cummins E. Meta-analysis of the effect of beta-glucan intake on blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Nutrition. 2011;27(10):1008–16. A comprehensive meta-analysis of 30 trials before 2009. The authors reported reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with oat intake.
Wang Y, Harding SV, Eck P, Thandapilly SJ, Gamel TH, el Abdel-Aal SM, et al. High-molecular-weight beta-glucan decreases serum cholesterol differentially based on the CYP7A1 rs3808607 polymorphism in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr. 2016;146(4):720–7.
• AbuMweis SS, Jew S, Ames NP. beta-glucan from barley and its lipid-lowering capacity: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(12):1472–80. This is a meta-analysis of 11 trials till 2008. It reported reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with barley intake.
Wolever TM, Gibbs AL, Brand-Miller J, Duncan AM, Hart V, Lamarche B, et al. Bioactive oat beta-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Nutr J. 2011;10:130.
Brouns F, Theuwissen E, Adam A, Bell M, Berger A, Mensink RP. Cholesterol-lowering properties of different pectin types in mildly hyper-cholesterolemic men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(5):591–9.
van der Gronde T, Hartog A, van Hees C, Pellikaan H, Pieters T. Systematic review of the mechanisms and evidence behind the hypocholesterolaemic effects of HPMC, pectin and chitosan in animal trials. Food Chem. 2016;199:746–59.
• Sola R, Bruckert E, Valls RM, Narejos S, Luque X, Castro-Cabezas M, et al. Soluble fibre (Plantago ovata husk) reduces plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, oxidised LDL and systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolaemic patients: a randomised trial. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211(2):630–7. A report of a randomized clinical trial with reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with psyllium/Plantago ovata.
Ribas SA, Cunha DB, Sichieri R, Santana da Silva LC. Effects of psyllium on LDL-cholesterol concentrations in Brazilian children and adolescents: a randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2015;113(1):134–41.
Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Rogovik AL, Fairgrieve CD, Jovanovski E, Leiter LA. Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(9):1349–52.
de Bock M, Derraik JG, Brennan CM, Biggs JB, Smith GC, Cameron-Smith D, et al. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41735.
Tovar AR, Caamano Mdel C, Garcia-Padilla S, Garcia OP, Duarte MA, Rosado JL. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: a randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women. Nutr J. 2012;11:44.
Dehghan P, Pourghassem Gargari B, Asgharijafarabadi M. Effects of high performance inulin supplementation on glycemic status and lipid profile in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Health Promotion Perspect. 2013;3(1):55–63.
de Luis DA, de la Fuente B, Izaola O, Conde R, Gutierrez S, Morillo M, et al. Randomized clinical trial with a inulin enriched cookie on risk cardiovascular factor in obese patients. Nutr Hosp. 2010;25(1):53–9.
Thongoun P, Pavadhgul P, Bumrungpert A, Satitvipawee P, Harjani Y, Kurilich A. Effect of oat consumption on lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic adults. J Med Assoc Thai. 2013;96 Suppl 5:S25–32.
• Thies F, Masson LF, Boffetta P, Kris-Etherton P. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review. Br J Nutr. 2014;112 Suppl 2:S19–30. A comprehensive meta-analysis of 69 trials where reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ∼49% to 58% were reported in studies with whole grains.
• Hollaender PL, Ross AB, Kristensen M. Whole-grain and blood lipid changes in apparently healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(3):556–72. A detailed and systematic review and meta-analysis of 24 randomized, controlled trials. The authors report reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with whole grains – the reduction resulted mainly from the effects of oats.
• Ha V, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Jayalath VH, Mirrahimi A, Agarwal A, et al. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2014;186(8):E252–62. This is a meta-analysis of 26 trials. It reported reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with pulses (e.g. chick peas, lentils, peas and beans).
Bazzano LA, Thompson AM, Tees MT, Nguyen CH, Winham DM. Non-soy legume consumption lowers cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;21(2):94–103.
Kristensen M, Jensen MG, Aarestrup J, Petersen KE, Sondergaard L, Mikkelsen MS, et al. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9:8.
Saxena S, Katare C. Evaluation of flaxseed formulation as a potential therapeutic agent in mitigation of dyslipidemia. Biomed J. 2014;37(6):386–90.
• Edel AL, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Maddaford TRIGLYCERIDE, Caligiuri SP, Austria JA, Weighell W, et al. Dietary flaxseed independently lowers circulating cholesterol and lowers it beyond the effects of cholesterol-lowering medications alone in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Nutr. 2015;145(4):749–57. The paper summarizes a randomized clinical trial that reported reductions in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with flaxseed.
Wood PJ. Physicochemical properties and physiological effects of the (1----3)(1----4)-beta-D-glucan from oats. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;270:119–27.
Wood RJ, Fernandez ML, Sharman MJ, Silvestre R, Greene CM, Zern TL, et al. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet with and without supplemental soluble fiber on plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other clinical markers of cardiovascular risk. Metabolism. 2007;56(1):58–67.
Yu LL TR, Shahidi F Cereals and pulses: nutraceutical properties and health benefits. Wiley-Blackwell.; 2012.
Ripsin CM, Keenan JM, Jacobs Jr DR, Elmer PJ, Welch RR, Van Horn L, et al. Oat products and lipid lowering. A meta-analysis. JAMA. 1992;267(24):3317–25.
Kelly SA, Summerbell CD, Brynes A, Whittaker V, Frost G. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;2:CD005051.
Wang Y, Ames NP, Tun HM, Tosh SM, Jones PJ, Khafipour E. High molecular weight barley beta-glucan alters gut microbiota toward reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:129.
Marounek M, Volek Z, Synytsya A, Copikova J. Effect of pectin and amidated pectin on cholesterol homeostasis and cecal metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Physiol Res. 2007;56(4):433–42.
Sanchez D, Muguerza B, Moulay L, Hernandez R, Miguel M, Aleixandre A. Highly methoxylated pectin improves insulin resistance and other cardiometabolic risk factors in Zucker fatty rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56(10):3574–81.
EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to pectins and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 786), maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentrations (ID 818) and increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 4692) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J. 2010;8(10):1747.
Goodrum LJ, Patel A, Leykam JF, Kieliszewski MJ. Gum arabic glycoprotein contains glycomodules of both extensin and arabinogalactan-glycoproteins. Phytochemistry. 2000;54(1):99–106.
Mee KA, Gee DL. Apple fiber and gum arabic lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. J Am Diet Assoc. 1997;97(4):422–4.
Rideout TC, Harding SV, Jones PJ, Fan MZ. Guar gum and similar soluble fibers in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism: current understandings and future research priorities. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(5):1023–33.
Jensen CD, Spiller GA, Gates JE, Miller AF, Whittam JH. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12(2):147–54.
Spiller GA, Farquhar JW, Gates JE, Nichols SF. Guar gum and plasma cholesterol. Effect of guar gum and an oat fiber source on plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991;11(5):1204–8.
Linetzky Waitzberg D, Alves Pereira CC, Logullo L, Manzoni Jacintho T, Almeida D, Teixeira da Silva ML, et al. Microbiota benefits after inulin and partially hydrolized guar gum supplementation: a randomized clinical trial in constipated women. Nutr Hosp. 2012;27(1):123–9.
• den Besten G, Gerding A, van Dijk TH, Ciapaite J, Bleeker A, van Eunen K, et al. Protection against the metabolic syndrome by guar gum-derived short-chain fatty acids depends on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucagon-like peptide-1. PLoS One. 2015;10(8):e0136364. A mechanistic study of the effect of Guar Gum on fatty acid metabolism, impacting the metabolic syndrome.
Hartvigsen ML, Laerke HN, Overgaard A, Holst JJ, Bach Knudsen KE, Hermansen K. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(5):567–74.
Ingerslev AK, Theil PK, Hedemann MS, Laerke HN, Bach Knudsen KE. Resistant starch and arabinoxylan augment SCFA absorption, but affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses differently. Br J Nutr. 2014;111(9):1564–76.
Salazar N, Dewulf EM, Neyrinck AM, Bindels LB, Cani PD, Mahillon J, et al. Inulin-type fructans modulate intestinal Bifidobacterium species populations and decrease fecal short-chain fatty acids in obese women. Clin Nutr. 2015;34(3):501–7.
Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vupputuri S, Myers L, et al. Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(21):2573–8.
Kushi LH, Meyer KA, Jacobs Jr DR. Cereals, legumes, and chronic disease risk reduction: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 Suppl):451S–8.
Anderson JW, Major AW. Pulses and lipaemia, short- and long-term effect: potential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Br J Nutr. 2002;88 Suppl 3:S263–71.
Duranti M. Grain legume proteins and nutraceutical properties. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(2):67–82.
Naran R, Chen G, Carpita NC. Novel rhamnogalacturonan I and arabinoxylan polysaccharides of flax seed mucilage. Plant Physiol. 2008;148(1):132–41.
Warrand J, Michaud P, Picton L, Muller G, Courtois B, Ralainirina R, et al. Structural investigations of the neutral polysaccharide of Linum usitatissimum L. seeds mucilage. Int J Biol Macromol. 2005;35(3–4):121–5.
Warrand J, Michaud P, Picton L, Muller G, Courtois B, Ralainirina R, et al. Flax (Linum usitatissimum) seed cake: a potential source of high molecular weight arabinoxylans? J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53(5):1449–52.
Goh KK, Pinder DN, Hall CE, Hemar Y. Rheological and light scattering properties of flaxseed polysaccharide aqueous solutions. Biomacromolecules. 2006;7(11):3098–103.
Cui WMG, Biliaderis CG. Chemical structure, molecular size distributions, and rheological properties of flaxseed gum. J Agric Food Chem. 1994;42:1891–5.
Comerford KB, Artiss JD, Jen KL, Karakas SE. The beneficial effects of alpha-cyclodextrin on blood lipids and weight loss in healthy humans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(6):1200–4.
Jarosz PA, Fletcher E, Elserafy E, Artiss JD, Jen KL. The effect of alpha-cyclodextrin on postprandial lipid and glycemic responses to a fat-containing meal. Metabolism. 2013;62(10):1443–7.
Reicks M, Jonnalagadda S, Albertson AM, Joshi N. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010. Nutr Res. 2014;34(3):226–34.
McGill CR, Fulgoni 3rd VL, Devareddy L. Ten-year trends in fiber and whole grain intakes and food sources for the United States population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010. Nutrients. 2015;7(2):1119–30.
US Department of Agriculture and US Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans. 7th ed. Washington, DC. U.S: Government Printing Office; 2010.
2015 – 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture; 2015.
Dahl WJ, Stewart ML. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: health implications of dietary fiber. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(11):1861–70.
Hendler SS RDe (ed.): PDR for nutritional supplements, 2nd edn: Physicians’ Desk Reference Inc; 2008.
Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet. 2000;355(9198):134–8.
Richter WO, Jacob BG, Schwandt P. Interaction between fibre and lovastatin. Lancet. 1991;338(8768):706.
Eussen S, Klungel O, Garssen J, Verhagen H, van Kranen H, van Loveren H, et al. Support of drug therapy using functional foods and dietary supplements: focus on statin therapy. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(9):1260–77.
van Bennekum AM, Nguyen DV, Schulthess G, Hauser H, Phillips MC. Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary insoluble fibres: relationships with intestinal and hepatic cholesterol parameters. Br J Nutr. 2005;94(3):331–7.
Erkkila AT, Lichtenstein AH. Fiber and cardiovascular disease risk: how strong is the evidence? J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;21(1):3–8.
Hung SC, Bartley G, Young SA, Albers DR, Dielman DR, Anderson WH, et al. Dietary fiber improves lipid homeostasis and modulates adipocytokines in hamsters. J Diabetes. 2009;1(3):194–206.
Parolini C, Manzini S, Busnelli M, Rigamonti E, Marchesi M, Diani E, et al. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1394–401.
•• Simpson HL, Campbell BJ. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;42(2):158–79. A comprehensive review that summarizes the interactions and possible mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary fiber on microbiota.
•• den Besten G, van Eunen K, Groen AK, Venema K, Reijngoud DJ, Bakker BM. The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism. J Lipid Res. 2013;54(9):2325–40. An in depth review that analyzes effects of short-chain fatty acids (one of the end products of fermentation of dietary fibers by anaerobic intestinal microbiota) on energy metabolism.
Martinez I, Lattimer JM, Hubach KL, Case JA, Yang J, Weber CG, et al. Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements. ISME J. 2013;7(2):269–80.
Lappi J, Salojarvi J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K, de Vos WM, et al. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2013;143(5):648–55.
Fechner A, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. The formation of short-chain fatty acids is positively associated with the blood lipid-lowering effect of lupin kernel fiber in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr. 2014;144(5):599–607.
•• Byrne CS, Chambers ES, Morrison DJ, Frost G. The role of short chain fatty acids in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Int J Obes. 2015;39(9):1331–8. An interesting and concise review on the effect of short-chain fatty acids on energy metabolism.
Ban SJ, Rico CW, Um IC, Kang MY. Comparative evaluation of the hypolipidemic effects of hydroxyethyl methylcellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in high fat-fed mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50(2):130–4.
Liu X, Yang F, Song T, Zeng A, Wang Q, Sun Z, et al. Therapeutic effect of carboxymethylated and quanternized chitosan on insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-induced rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2012;23(10):1271–84.
Hsieh YL, Yao HT, Cheng RS, Chiang MT. Chitosan reduces plasma adipocytokines and lipid accumulation in liver and adipose tissues and ameliorates insulin resistance in diabetic rats. J Med Food. 2012;15(5):453–60.
This work was supported by UC Davis Clinical and Translational Center (CTSC) base operating grant (#TR000002) and Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women’s Health/K12 training grant (#NIH 2K12HD051958).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Nutrition
About this article
Cite this article
Surampudi, P., Enkhmaa, B., Anuurad, E. et al. Lipid Lowering with Soluble Dietary Fiber. Curr Atheroscler Rep 18, 75 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-016-0624-z
- Fiber-rich food
- LDL cholesterol
- Cardiovascular risk