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Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

  • Nutrition (William S. Harris, Section Editor)
  • Published:
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An Erratum to this article was published on 03 December 2011

Abstract

Omega-3 fatty acid supplements containing both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to reduce triglycerides but also increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Whether EPA or DHA given as monotherapy has differential effects on serum lipoproteins has not been systematically evaluated. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of monotherapy with EPA (n = 10), DHA (n = 17), or EPA versus DHA (n = 6). Compared with placebo, DHA raised LDL 7.23 mg/dL (95% CI, 3.98–10.5) whereas EPA non-significantly reduced LDL. In direct comparison studies, DHA raised LDL 4.63 mg/dL (95% CI, 2.15–7.10) more than EPA. Both EPA and DHA reduced triglycerides, with a greater reduction by DHA in direct comparison studies. DHA also raised high-density lipoprotein (4.49 mg/dL; 95% CI, 3.50–5.48) compared with placebo, whereas EPA did not. Although EPA and DHA both reduce triglycerides, they have divergent effects on LDL and high-density lipoprotein. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms and significance of these differences.

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Abbreviations

CETP:

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

CI:

Confidence interval

COMBOS:

Combination of Prescription Omega-3 with Simvastatin

df:

Degrees of freedom

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

HDL:

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

JELIS:

Japanese EPA Lipid Intervention Study

LDL:

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

PPAR:

Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors

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Disclosure

M.Y. Wei: none; T.A. Jacobson is a consultant for GlaxoSmithKline and Amarin.

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Correspondence to Melissa Y. Wei or Terry A. Jacobson.

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An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11883-011-0223-y

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Wei, M.Y., Jacobson, T.A. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 13, 474–483 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-011-0210-3

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