Purpose of Review
In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics.
Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma. Some of these drugs have shown beneficial effects in the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes and for protection against asthma during early life.
Current clinical evidence does not support the use of these therapies for effective treatment of asthma. The integration of the data regarding microbiota with technologic advances, such as next generation sequencing and omics offers promise. Combining comprehensive bioinformatics, new molecules and approaches may shape future asthma treatment.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
GINA guidelines. From the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Revised asthma guidelines 2016. http://www.ginasthma.org/; 2016. Accessed July 26, 2016.
National Asthma Education and Prevention Program: Expert panel report III: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2007. (NIH publication no. 08–4051). www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/asthgdln.htm. Accessed on May 31, 2016.
Bjorksten B, Sepp E, Julge K, Voor T, Mikelsaar M. Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(4):516–20.
Kalliomaki M, Kirjavainen P, Eerola E, Kero P, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107(1):129–34.
Penders J, Thijs C, van den Brandt PA, Kummeling I, Snijders B, Stelma F, et al. Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Gut. 2007;56(5):661–7.
Hilty M, Burke C, Pedro H, Cardenas P, Bush A, Bossley C, et al. Disordered microbial communities in asthmatic airways. PLoS One. 2010;5(1):e8578.
Green BJ, Wiriyachaiporn S, Grainge C, Rogers GB, Kehagia V, Lau L, et al. Potentially pathogenic airway bacteria and neutrophilic inflammation in treatment resistant severe asthma. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100645.
Abraham JH, Finn PW, Milton DK, Ryan LM, Perkins DL, Gold DR. Infant home endotoxin is associated with reduced allergen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and IL-13 production in childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(2):431–7.
Riedler J, Braun-Fahrlander C, Eder W, Schreuer M, Waser M, Maisch S, et al. Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet. 2001;358(9288):1129–33.
Schuijs MJ, Willart MA, Vergote K, Gras D, Deswarte K, Ege MJ, et al. Farm dust and endotoxin protect against allergy through A20 induction in lung epithelial cells. Science. 2015;349(6252):1106–10.
•• Stein MM, Hrusch CL, Gozdz J, Igartua C, Pivniouk V, Murray SE, et al. Innate immunity and asthma risk in Amish and Hutterite farm children. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(5):411–21. This study presents evidence that a rich microbe content in household dust enhances immunity and the differences in the incidence of asthma among Amish versus the genetically related Hutterites may be due to lifestyle variations that result in differences in the environmental microbiome.
Bizzintino J, Lee WM, Laing IA, Vang F, Pappas T, Zhang G, et al. Association between human rhinovirus C and severity of acute asthma in children. Eur Respir J. 2011;37(5):1037–42.
Freymuth F, Vabret A, Brouard J, Toutain F, Verdon R, Petitjean J, et al. Detection of viral, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in exacerbations of asthma in children. J Clin Virol. 1999;13(3):131–9.
• Backhed F, Roswall J, Peng Y, Feng Q, Jia H, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, et al. Dynamics and stabilization of the human gut microbiome during the first year of life. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;17(5):690–703. This study showed breast feeding had a major impact on early microbiota composition by applying metagenomic analysis on fecal samples from a large cohort of Swedish infants and their mothers.
Human Microbiome Project Consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature. 2012;486(7402):207–14.
Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Smidt H, de Vos WM. Diversity of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9(9):2125–36.
• Fujimura KE, Sitarik AR, Havstad S, Lin DL, Levan S, Fadrosh D, et al. Neonatal gut microbiota associates with childhood multisensitized atopy and T cell differentiation. Nat Med. 2016;22(10):1187–91. Findings of this study is suggesting that the neonatal gut microbiota influences susceptibility to childhood allergic asthma, via alterations in the gut microenvironment that influence CD4 + T–cell populations and function.
Gdalevich M, Mimouni D, Mimouni M. Breast-feeding and the risk of bronchial asthma in childhood: a systematic review with meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Pediatr. 2001;139(2):261–6.
Arrieta MC, Stiemsma LT, Dimitriu PA, Thorson L, Russell S, Yurist-Doutsch S, et al. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7(307):307ra152.
Berni Canani R, Sangwan N, Stefka AT, Nocerino R, Paparo L, Aitoro R, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-supplemented formula expands butyrate-producing bacterial strains in food allergic infants. ISME J. 2016;10(3):742–50.
Bisgaard H, Hermansen MN, Buchvald F, Loland L, Halkjaer LB, Bonnelykke K, et al. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(15):1487–95.
Rosas-Salazar C, Shilts MH, Tovchigrechko A, Chappell JD, Larkin EK, Nelson KE, et al. Nasopharyngeal microbiome in respiratory syncytial virus resembles profile associated with increased childhood asthma risk. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016;193(10):1180–3.
Teo SM, Mok D, Pham K, Kusel M, Serralha M, Troy N, et al. The infant nasopharyngeal microbiome impacts severity of lower respiratory infection and risk of asthma development. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;17(5):704–15.
Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Boehmer S, Beigelman A, Fitzpatrick AM, et al. Early administration of azithromycin and prevention of severe lower respiratory tract illnesses in preschool children with a history of such illnesses: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(19):2034–44.
Huang YJ, Nelson CE, Brodie EL, Desantis TZ, Baek MS, Liu J, et al. Airway microbiota and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with suboptimally controlled asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127(2):372–81. e1-3
Huang YJ, Nariya S, Harris JM, Lynch SV, Choy DF, Arron JR, et al. The airway microbiome in patients with severe asthma: associations with disease features and severity. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):874–84.
Goleva E, Jackson LP, Harris JK, Robertson CE, Sutherland ER, Hall CF, et al. The effects of airway microbiome on corticosteroid responsiveness in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188(10):1193–201.
•• Denner DR, Sangwan N, Becker JB, Hogarth DK, Oldham J, Castillo J, et al. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137(5):1398–405 e3. This article reports the differences in relative abundance of potentially pathogenic taxa between asthmatic subjects with the greatest degree of obstruction and those using oral corticoseroid therapy and asthmatic subjects with milder disease.
Segal LN, Clemente JC, Tsay JC, Koralov SB, Keller BC, Wu BG, et al. Enrichment of the lung microbiome with oral taxa is associated with lung inflammation of a Th17 phenotype. Nat Microbiol. 2016;1:16031.
Huang YJ. Asthma microbiome studies and the potential for new therapeutic strategies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2013;13(5):453–61.
Lin KW, Li J, Finn PW. Emerging pathways in asthma: innate and adaptive interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810(11):1052–8.
Suarez CJ, Parker NJ, Finn PW. Innate immune mechanism in allergic asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2008;8(5):451–9.
Finn PW, Bigby TD. Innate immunity and asthma. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2009;6(3):260–5.
Aryan Z, Holgate ST, Radzioch D, Rezaei N. A new era of targeting the ancient gatekeepers of the immune system: toll-like agonists in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2014;164(1):46–63.
Soumelis V, Reche PA, Kanzler H, Yuan W, Edward G, Homey B, et al. Human epithelial cells trigger dendritic cell mediated allergic inflammation by producing TSLP. Nat Immunol. 2002;3(7):673–80.
Ellwood P, Asher MI, Garcia-Marcos L, Williams H, Keil U, Robertson C, et al. Do fast foods cause asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Global findings from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase three. Thorax. 2013;68(4):351–60.
Garcia-Larsen V, Del Giacco SR, Moreira A, Bonini M, Charles D, Reeves T, et al. Asthma and dietary intake: an overview of systematic reviews. Allergy. 2016;71(4):433–42.
Elliott L, Henderson J, Northstone K, Chiu GY, Dunson D, London SJ. Prospective study of breast-feeding in relation to wheeze, atopy, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(1):49–54. e1-3
Feehley T, Stefka AT, Cao S, Nagler CR. Microbial regulation of allergic responses to food. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34(5):671–88.
Paturi G, Butts C, Monro J, Nones K, Martell S, Butler R, et al. Cecal and colonic responses in rats fed 5 or 30% corn oil diets containing either 7.5% broccoli dietary fiber or microcrystalline cellulose. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(10):6510–5.
Bottcher MF, Nordin EK, Sandin A, Midtvedt T, Bjorksten B. Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30(11):1590–6.
Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen YY, Keilbaugh SA, et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Science. 2011;334(6052):105–8.
Bengmark S, Martindale R. Prebiotics and synbiotics in clinical medicine. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005;20(2):244–61.
Osborn DA, Sinn JK. Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;3:CD006474.
Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization (FAO/WHO)) Report of Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria. FAO/WHO Report no. 10-1-2001. WHO INT; Córdoba, Argentina.
Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics. 2013;132(3):e666–76.
Rauch M, Lynch SV. The potential for probiotic manipulation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23(2):192–201.
Hougee S, Vriesema AJ, Wijering SC, Knippels LM, Folkerts G, Nijkamp FP, et al. Oral treatment with probiotics reduces allergic symptoms in ovalbumin-sensitized mice: a bacterial strain comparative study. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151(2):107–17.
Yu J, Jang SO, Kim BJ, Song YH, Kwon JW, Kang MJ, et al. The effects of lactobacillus rhamnosus on the prevention of asthma in a murine model. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2010;2(3):199–205.
Pellaton C, Nutten S, Thierry AC, Boudousquie C, Barbier N, Blanchard C, et al. Intragastric and intranasal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461 modulates allergic airway inflammation in mice. Int J Inflam. 2012;2012:686739.
Di Felice G, Barletta B, Butteroni C, Corinti S, Tinghino R, Colombo P, et al. Use of probiotic bacteria for prevention and therapy of allergic diseases: studies in mouse model of allergic sensitization. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;42(Suppl 3 Pt 1):S130–2.
Daniel C, Repa A, Wild C, Pollak A, Pot B, Breiteneder H, et al. Modulation of allergic immune responses by mucosal application of recombinant lactic acid bacteria producing the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Allergy. 2006;61(7):812–9.
Helin T, Haahtela S, Haahtela T. No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), on birch-pollen allergy: a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Allergy. 2002;57(3):243–6.
Tamura M, Shikina T, Morihana T, Hayama M, Kajimoto O, Sakamoto A, et al. Effects of probiotics on allergic rhinitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen: randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007;143(1):75–82.
Wang MF, Lin HC, Wang YY, Hsu CH. Treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with lactic acid bacteria. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004;15(2):152–8.
van de Pol MA, Lutter R, Smids BS, Weersink EJ, van der Zee JS. Synbiotics reduce allergen-induced T-helper 2 response and improve peak expiratory flow in allergic asthmatics. Allergy. 2011;66(1):39–47.
Wheeler JG, Shema SJ, Bogle ML, Shirrell MA, Burks AW, Pittler A, et al. Immune and clinical impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus on asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1997;79(3):229–33.
Xu MQ, Cao HL, Wang WQ, Wang S, Cao XC, Yan F, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation broadening its application beyond intestinal disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(1):102–11.
Aroniadis OC, Brandt LJ, Greenberg A, Borody T, Kelly CR, Mellow M, et al. Long-term follow-up study of fecal microbiota transplantation for severe and/or complicated Clostridium difficile infection: a multicenter experience. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2016;50(5):398–402.
Kraft M, Cassell GH, Pak J, Martin RJ. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in asthma: effect of clarithromycin. Chest. 2002;121(6):1782–8.
Black PN, Blasi F, Jenkins CR, Scicchitano R, Mills GD, Rubinfeld AR, et al. Trial of roxithromycin in subjects with asthma and serological evidence of infection with chlamydia pneumoniae. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164(4):536–41.
Asada M, Yoshida M, Suzuki T, Hatachi Y, Sasaki T, Yasuda H, et al. Macrolide antibiotics inhibit respiratory syncytial virus infection in human airway epithelial cells. Antivir Res. 2009;83(2):191–200.
Kobayashi Y, Wada H, Rossios C, Takagi D, Charron C, Barnes PJ, et al. A novel macrolide/fluoroketolide, solithromycin (CEM-101), reverses corticosteroid insensitivity via phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway inhibition. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169(5):1024–34.
Ci X, Chu X, Xu X, Li H, Deng X. Short-term roxithromycin treatment attenuates airway inflammation via MAPK/NF-kappaB activation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Inflamm Res. 2012;61(7):749–58.
Marjanovic N, Bosnar M, Michielin F, Wille DR, Anic-Milic T, Culic O, et al. Macrolide antibiotics broadly and distinctively inhibit cytokine and chemokine production by COPD sputum cells in vitro. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63(5):389–97.
Park JY, Kim HY, Lee JY, Kim KH, Jang MK, Lee JH, et al. Macrolide-affected Toll-like receptor 4 expression from Helicobacter pylori-infected monocytes does not modify interleukin-8 production. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;44(2):171–6.
Kew KM, Undela K, Kotortsi I, Ferrara G. Macrolides for chronic asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;9:CD002997.
Wood LG, Simpson JL, Hansbro PM, Gibson PG. Potentially pathogenic bacteria cultured from the sputum of stable asthmatics are associated with increased 8-isoprostane and airway neutrophilia. Free Radic Res. 2010;44(2):146–54.
Simpson JL, Powell H, Boyle MJ, Scott RJ, Gibson PG. Clarithromycin targets neutrophilic airway inflammation in refractory asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(2):148–55.
Kadota J, Mukae H, Ishii H, Nagata T, Kaida H, Tomono K, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of clarithromycin treatment in patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis. Respir Med. 2003;97(7):844–50.
Hahn DL, Plane MB, Mahdi OS, Byrne GI. Secondary outcomes of a pilot randomized trial of azithromycin treatment for asthma. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006;1(2):e11.
Kostadima E, Tsiodras S, Alexopoulos EI, Kaditis AG, Mavrou I, Georgatou N, et al. Clarithromycin reduces the severity of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma. Eur Respir J. 2004;23(5):714–7.
Slater M, Rivett DW, Williams L, Martin M, Harrison T, Sayers I, et al. The impact of azithromycin therapy on the airway microbiota in asthma. Thorax. 2014;69(7):673–4.
Redecke V, Hacker H, Datta SK, Fermin A, Pitha PM, Broide DH, et al. Cutting edge: activation of Toll-like receptor 2 induces a Th2 immune response and promotes experimental asthma. J Immunol. 2004;172(5):2739–43.
Velasco G, Campo M, Manrique OJ, Bellou A, He H, Arestides RS, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 or 2 agonists decrease allergic inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;32(3):218–24.
DuBuske LM, Frew AJ, Horak F, Keith PK, Corrigan CJ, Aberer W, et al. Ultrashort-specific immunotherapy successfully treats seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to grass pollen. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2011;32(3):239–47.
Rosewich M, Schulze J, Eickmeier O, Telles T, Rose MA, Schubert R, et al. Tolerance induction after specific immunotherapy with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A in children. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;160(3):403–10.
Casale TB, Kessler J, Romero FA. Safety of the intranasal toll-like receptor 4 agonist CRX-675 in allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97(4):454–6.
Bortolatto J, Borducchi E, Rodriguez D, Keller AC, Faquim-Mauro E, Bortoluci KR, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 agonists adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant attenuate ovalbumin-specific allergic airway disease: role of MyD88 adaptor molecule and interleukin-12/interferon-gamma axis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(10):1668–79.
Edwars MJ. Therapy directed against thymic stromal lymphopoietin. In: Hansel TT, Barnes PJ, editors. New drugs and targets for asthma and COPD. Prog Respir res, vol. 39. Basel: Karger; 2010. p. 55–9.
Shikotra A, Choy DF, Ohri CM, Doran E, Butler C, Hargadon B, et al. Increased expression of immunoreactive thymic stromal lymphopoietin in patients with severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129(1):104–11. e1-9
Ying S, O'Connor B, Ratoff J, Meng Q, Fang C, Cousins D, et al. Expression and cellular provenance of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and chemokines in patients with severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Immunol. 2008;181(4):2790–8.
Zhang F, Huang G, Hu B, Song Y, Shi Y. A soluble thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) antagonist, TSLPR-immunoglobulin, reduces the severity of allergic disease by regulating pulmonary dendritic cells 2011 [updated May; cited 164 2]. 2011/03/01:[256–64].
Shi L, Leu SW, Xu F, Zhou X, Yin H, Cai L, et al. Local blockade of TSLP receptor alleviated allergic disease by regulating airway dendritic cells. Clin Immunol. 2008;129(2):202–10.
• Gauvreau GM, O'Byrne PM, Boulet LP, Wang Y, Cockcroft D, Bigler J, et al. Effects of an anti-TSLP antibody on allergen-induced asthmatic responses. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(22):2102–10. This is the first study investigating the effect of fully human anti-TSLP monoclonal immunoglobulin G2λ in mild allergic asthma patients. Their findings showed that treatment with anti-TLSP immunglobulin may reduce allergen-induced bronchoconstriction and indexes of airway inflammation before and after allergen challenge.
Schmitz J, Owyang A, Oldham E, Song Y, Murphy E, McClanahan TK, et al. IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23(5):479–90.
Nabe T. Interleukin (IL)-33: new therapeutic target for atopic diseases. J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;126(2):85–91.
Kondo Y, Yoshimoto T, Yasuda K, Futatsugi-Yumikura S, Morimoto M, Hayashi N, et al. Administration of IL-33 induces airway hyperresponsiveness and goblet cell hyperplasia in the lungs in the absence of adaptive immune system. Int Immunol. 2008;20(6):791–800.
Mizutani N, Nabe T, Yoshino S. Interleukin-33 and alveolar macrophages contribute to the mechanisms underlying the exacerbation of IgE-mediated airway inflammation and remodelling in mice. Immunology. 2013;139(2):205–18.
Prefontaine D, Lajoie-Kadoch S, Foley S, Audusseau S, Olivenstein R, Halayko AJ, et al. Increased expression of IL-33 in severe asthma: evidence of expression by airway smooth muscle cells. J Immunol. 2009;183(8):5094–103.
Kim YH, Park CS, Lim DH, Ahn SH, Son BK, Kim JH, et al. Beneficial effect of anti-interleukin-33 on the murine model of allergic inflammation of the lower airway. J Asthma. 2012;49(7):738–43.
Liu X, Li M, Wu Y, Zhou Y, Zeng L, Huang T. Anti-IL-33 antibody treatment inhibits airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386(1):181–5.
Lee HY, Rhee CK, Kang JY, Byun JH, Choi JY, Kim SJ, et al. Blockade of IL-33/ST2 ameliorates airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. Exp Lung Res. 2014;40(2):66–76.
Ranjan R, Rani A, Metwally A, McGee HS, Perkins DL. Analysis of the microbiome: advantages of whole genome shotgun versus 16S amplicon sequencing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469(4):967–77.
Lim YW, Schmieder R, Haynes M, Willner D, Furlan M, Youle M, et al. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics: windows on CF-associated viral and microbial communities. J Cyst Fibros. 2013;12(2):154–64.
Gevers D, Pop M, Schloss PD, Huttenhower C. Bioinformatics for the human microbiome project. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8(11):e1002779.
Peabody MA, Van Rossum T, Lo R, Brinkman FS. Evaluation of shotgun metagenomics sequence classification methods using in silico and in vitro simulated communities. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16:363.
Edgar RC. Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics. 2010;26(19):2460–1.
Corren J. Asthma phenotypes and endotypes: an evolving paradigm for classification. Discov Med. 2013;15(83):243–9.
Sittka A, Vera J, Lai X, Schmeck BT. Asthma phenotyping, therapy, and prevention: what can we learn from systems biology? Pediatr Res. 2013;73(4 Pt 2):543–52.
Dr. Ozturk would like to thank the Turkish Thoracic Society Fellowship Programme for supporting her work at the UIC Department of Medicine Finn-Perkins Laboratory.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Asthma
About this article
Cite this article
Ozturk, A.B., Turturice, B.A., Perkins, D.L. et al. The Potential for Emerging Microbiome-Mediated Therapeutics in Asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 17, 62 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-017-0730-1
- Innate immunity
- Thymic stromal lymphopoietin
- Toll-like receptors