Impact of Respiratory Virus Infections in Exacerbation of Acute and Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a symptomatic disease classification of many causes and is a major economic burden worldwide. It is widely accepted that RS is further classified into acute (ARS) and chronic (CRS) rhinosinusitis based on the duration of the symptoms, and that viral infection plays a large role in initiating or potentiating the disease. In this review, we examine the role of respiratory virus infection in the exacerbation of ARS and CRS. We explore the epidemiology of viral exacerbation of ARS and CRS and highlight key viruses that may cause exacerbation. We also review the current understanding of viral infections in the upper airway to further explain the putative underlying mechanisms of inflammatory events in ARS and CRS exacerbation. Advances in accurate diagnosis of the etiologic respiratory viruses of ARS and CRS symptoms which can lead to better disease management are also surveyed. In addition to the current treatments which provide symptomatic relief, we also explore the potential of harnessing existing antiviral strategies to prevent ARS and CRS exacerbation, especially with improved viral diagnostic tools to guide accurate prescription of antivirals against causative respiratory viruses.
KeywordsAcute rhinosinusitis Antivirals Bacterial infection Chronic rhinosinusitis Diagnosis Exacerbation Treatment Viral infection
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kai Sen Tan, Yan Yan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Vincent T. K. Chow, Li Shi, and De-Yun Wang declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Declaration of All Sources of Funding
This study was supported by grants from the National Medical Research Council (NMRC/CIRG/1362/2013 and NMRC/CIRG/1458/2016).
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