Microbiome Diversity and Asthma and Allergy Risk
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The prevalence of asthma and allergy has been constantly increasing in Westernized countries in the last decades. Asthma and allergies are complex diseases with a local tissue inflammation that are determined by genetic and environmental factors. Because the commensal microflora is crucial to maintain inflammatory homeostasis and to induce immune regulation, the microbiome may play an important role for the development of allergic conditions. New techniques such as next-generation sequencing methods give the opportunity to explore the microbial community structure of the human body comprehensively. In this review, we will discuss the available literature concerning the human microbiota and asthma and allergy development and occurrence. The focus is on studies of the local microbiome of the place of inflammation, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and the influence of intrinsic factors relating to the host and extrinsic factors relating to the external environment on the microbiome.
KeywordsAsthma Allergy Microbiome 16S rRNA Gut Lower airways Environment Antibiotics Probiotics
This work was supported by the European Research Council (250268) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Antje Legatzki reports grants from the European Research Council, during the conduct of the study.
Barbara Rösler reports grants from the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research, during the conduct of the study, and personal fees from ALK Abello, outside the submitted work.
Erika von Mutius reports grants from the European Research Council, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and FrieslandCampina during the conduct of the study and personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., ALK Abelló, the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and the New England Journal of Medicine, outside the submitted work.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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